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  1. Research article

    Recurrent evolution of gut symbiotic bacteria in pentatomid stinkbugs

    Diverse animals are intimately associated with microbial symbionts. How such host–symbiont associations have evolved is a fundamental biological issue. Recent studies have revealed a variety of evolutionary re...

    Takahiro Hosokawa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi and Takema Fukatsu

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:24

    Published on: 30 November 2016

  2. Research article

    Whip spiders (Amblypygi) become water-repellent by a colloidal secretion that self-assembles into hierarchical microstructures

    Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of ...

    Jonas O. Wolff, Thomas Schwaha, Michael Seiter and Stanislav N. Gorb

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:23

    Published on: 28 November 2016

  3. Research article

    Two-headed mutants of the lamprey, a basal vertebrate

    This is the first report of two-headed (bicephaly) lamprey twins. Although lampreys sit at a crucial phylogenetic position, there are only a few reports on their teratology and developmental abnormalities.

    Daichi G. Suzuki

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:22

    Published on: 16 November 2016

  4. Research article

    Palaeospondylus as a primitive hagfish

    The taxonomic position of the Middle Devonian fish-like animal Palaeospondylus has remained enigmatic, due mainly to the inability to identify homologous cranial elements. This animal has been classified into nea...

    Tatsuya Hirasawa, Yasuhiro Oisi and Shigeru Kuratani

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:20

    Published on: 8 September 2016

  5. Research article

    Sex chromosome evolution in snakes inferred from divergence patterns of two gametologous genes and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences

    The discovery of differentially organized sex chromosome systems suggests that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of homologous chromosomes. Whereas karyotypes are highly conserved in alethinoph...

    Kazumi Matsubara, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda and Yoshinori Kumazawa

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:19

    Published on: 26 August 2016

  6. Research article

    Flexible selection of diversified Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms for osmoregulation in teleosts

    Multiple Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit isoforms express differentially in response to salinity transfer in teleosts but we observed that the isoform nomenclature is inconsistent with the phylogenetic relations...

    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki and Yoshio Takei

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:15

    Published on: 3 August 2016

  7. Research article

    On the sighted ancestry of blindness – exceptionally preserved eyes of Mesozoic polychelidan lobsters

    Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. Fossil species of Polychelida, howeve...

    Denis Audo, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Sylvain Charbonnier, Günter Schweigert, Carsten H. G. Müller and Steffen Harzsch

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:13

    Published on: 16 July 2016

  8. Research article

    Comparative morphology and development of extra-ocular muscles in the lamprey and gnathostomes reveal the ancestral state and developmental patterns of the vertebrate head

    The ancestral configuration of the vertebrate head has long been an intriguing topic in comparative morphology and evolutionary biology. One peculiar component of the vertebrate head is the presence of extra-o...

    Daichi G. Suzuki, Yuma Fukumoto, Miho Yoshimura, Yuji Yamazaki, Jun Kosaka, Shigeru Kuratani and Hiroshi Wada

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:10

    Published on: 14 April 2016

  9. Research article

    Mechanisms of wound closure following acute arm injury in Octopus vulgaris

    Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the i...

    Tanya J. Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito and Paul L.R. Andrews

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:8

    Published on: 29 March 2016

  10. Research article

    Mode of reduction in the number of pharyngeal segments within the sarcopterygians

    Pharyngeal segmentation is a defining feature of vertebrate embryos and is apparent as a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. The ancestral condition for ...

    Victoria Shone, Silvan Oulion, Didier Casane, Patrick Laurenti and Anthony Graham

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:6

    Published on: 21 March 2016

  11. Research article

    Enhancer of zeste plays an important role in photoperiodic modulation of locomotor rhythm in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Insects show daily behavioral rhythms controlled by an endogenous oscillator, the circadian clock. The rhythm synchronizes to daily light–dark cycles (LD) and changes waveform in association with seasonal chan...

    Yoshimasa Hamada, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Hideyo Ohuchi and Kenji Tomioka

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:5

    Published on: 19 March 2016

  12. Research article

    Distal-less induces elemental color patterns in Junonia butterfly wings

    The border ocellus, or eyespot, is a conspicuous color pattern element in butterfly wings. For two decades, it has been hypothesized that transcription factors such as Distal-less (Dll) are responsible for eye...

    Bidur Dhungel, Yoshikazu Ohno, Rie Matayoshi, Mayo Iwasaki, Wataru Taira, Kiran Adhikari, Raj Gurung and Joji M. Otaki

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:4

    Published on: 1 March 2016

  13. Research article

    Bivalve-specific gene expansion in the pearl oyster genome: implications of adaptation to a sessile lifestyle

    Bivalve molluscs have flourished in marine environments, and many species constitute important aquatic resources. Recently, whole genome sequences from two bivalves, the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and the Pac...

    Takeshi Takeuchi, Ryo Koyanagi, Fuki Gyoja, Miyuki Kanda, Kanako Hisata, Manabu Fujie, Hiroki Goto, Shinichi Yamasaki, Kiyohito Nagai, Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Kazuyoshi Endo, Hirotoshi Endo, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Shuichi Asakawa…

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:3

    Published on: 18 February 2016

  14. Research article

    Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion

    Deuterostomes (animals with ‘secondary mouths’) are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuteros...

    Takao Kaji, James D. Reimer, Arseniy R. Morov, Shigeru Kuratani and Kinya Yasui

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:2

    Published on: 6 February 2016

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