Basic reproductive biology of daggertooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus: A possible model for oogenesis in Anguilliformes
© Kobayashi et al. 2015
Received: 17 March 2015
Accepted: 8 July 2015
Published: 3 September 2015
Eels are animals commonly used in zoological research, as these species have a unique catadromous life history and belong to a phylogenetically ancient group of Teleostei. However, eel reproduction is difficult to investigate, since mature samples are not easily obtainable in the wild. In this study, we tested daggertooth pike conger (Muraenesox cinereus), an Anguilliformes species, as a potential model for the investigation of the reproductive biology of eels. Seventy individuals were caught between June and October, which is supposed to be their spawning season, from inshore of the Seto Inland Sea.
The lengths and ages of samples ranged from 510 to 1239 mm and three to nine years, respectively, and the sex ratio was skewed towards females (96 % of the total sample). The gonado-somatic index of the females peaked in July. Histological observation revealed that these ovaries were similar to those of other eel species and contained matured oocytes (migratory-nucleus stage), suggesting that pike conger spawn inshore in July. The plasma concentrations of sex steroid hormones (estradiol-17β and 11-keto-testosterone) in females gradually increased during maturation and decreased after spawning, indicating the involvement of these hormones in oogenesis of pike conger.
The present study is the first to report on characteristics of natural oogenesis in pike conger. Because naturally maturing samples can easily be captured, daggertooth pike conger may represent an excellent model for the study of reproduction in Anguilliformes.
KeywordsConger Eel Gonad Ovary Testis Reproduction
The unique catadromous nature of eels (Anguilla japonica, A. anguilla and A. rostrata), make them a representative species of the phylogenetically ancient group of Teleostei , and because of this feature they are commonly used experimental animals for zoological studies that involve migration, environmental adaptation, and reproduction. This species grows in freshwater or in coastal areas of East Asia, but spawns offshore of the western North Pacific after extreme long-distance migrations [1–4]. Thus, eels captured in freshwater or inshore possess only immature gonads and naturally maturing fishes are not easily available. Furthermore, the gonads of eels remain dormant in culture conditions [5, 6]. Artificial gonadal development/maturation in cultured eels is partially possible by administration of gonadotropic hormone reagents, such as salmon pituitary extracts [7, 6, 8]. However, reports show that there are physiological and morphological differences between wild and artificially matured eels . Therefore, it is imperative to study the reproductive biology, especially the process of natural gonadal maturation, of eels.
The daggertooth pike conger (Muraenesox cinereus; order Anguilliformes, family Muraenesocidae) is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean [9, 10]. Since pike conger is evolutionally primitive among Anguilliformes  and can be continuously captured by bottom trawling from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan , this fish may represent a useful model for studying Anguilliformes reproduction. However, such reports on the reproduction of daggertooth pike conger are completely lacking. Therefore, we took up this study with an aim to obtain basic information on the reproduction of pike conger.
As a first step, we examined the sex ratio, body size, age and gonadal maturity during the possible spawning season (July–October). Additionally, we analyzed the concentrations of sex steroid hormones (Estradiol-17ß and 11-keto testosterone, which are known to be involved in eel gametogenesis ), in plasma during oogenesis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the oogenesis of Anguilliformes in the wild.
Materials and methods
Daggertooth pike conger samples used in this study
622.9 ± 142.6
565.0 ± 110.8
818.4 ± 77.13
846.5 ± 281.0
1149 ± 278.3
752.6 ± 242.1
After anesthesia, body weight and length were measured. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein with heparinized syringes. After centrifugation, plasma was collected and stored at −30 °C until analysis. Eels were sacrificed by decapitation, and gonads and otoliths were removed. Gonads were weighed to calculate the gonadosomatic index (GSI = gonad weight/body weight × 100). Pieces of the gonad were fixed with Bouin’s solution for histological analysis. Otoliths were cleaned and stored dry until further analysis. All procedures were performed in accordance with the Guidelines for Animal Experimentation established by Okayama University.
To determine the ages of the individual fish, all otoliths were analyzed according to previously published method . In brief, otoliths were embedded in polyester resin and then cut into 0.3 mm transverse sections with a saw microtome (SP1600, Leica Microsystems GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). The sections were mounted on glass slides and their surfaces were ground to sequentially finer grades using carborundum paper. Finally, the sections were etched with 0.2 N HCl for 30 s. The number of rings (opaque zones) in the section, representing the age of individual fish, were counted under a microscope.
To identify the sex and gonadal maturity, the fixed gonads were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin samples were serially sectioned to 7 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The determination of oocyte maturity was based on a previous report on common Japanese conger .
Measurement of steroid hormones
The concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and 11-keto-testosterone (11KT), the major fish estrogen and androgen respectively, in the plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The analyses were performed according to a previous report , and absorbance was measured in a microplate reader (MTP-300; CORONA Electric Co. Ltd., Japan).
Data on the steroid hormone levels and GSI are presented as means ± SEM. Significant differences were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey–Kramer Multiple comparison test using PRISM 5.0b software (GraphPad, San Diego, CA). P < 0.05 was taken as the threshold for statistical significance.
Sex ratio, age and growth
Changes in gonadosomatic index in females
Histological observation of the ovary
Maturity stages of ovary in the daggertooth pike conger
Oocyte stage (oocyte diameter)
Pre-nucleous (<130 μm)
Oil droplet stage (130–180 μm)
Primary yolk stage (200–330 μm)
Secondry yolk stage (320–450 μm)
Tertiary yolk stage (500–800 μm)
Migratory nucleus stage (700–900 μm)
Immature. Fish at this stage had ovaries containing many pre-vitellogenic oocytes. No mature oocytes were observed in the ovary (Fig. 3a).
Vitellogenesis onset. The ovary of this stage harbored oil droplets and primary yolk oocytes (Fig. 3b).
Vitellogenesis progression. Many oocytes at the secondary vitellogenic stage were observed in the ovary (Fig. 3c).
Vitellogenesis completion. Many tertiary yolk-stage oocytes (Fig. 3d) and few migratory nucleus-stage oocytes (Fig. 3e) were observed in the ovary. This stage was observed in the youngest sample also (age 3).
Post-spawning. The ovaries of this stage contained atretic oocytes (Fig. 3f).
Changes in female maturation
Plasma steroids in female
Histological observation of testis
In this study, we investigated the basic reproductive biology of daggertooth pike conger. First, we examined the sex ratio, age and body size. Second, the oogenesis of pike conger was characterized by the histological observation and the spawning period was determined.
The changes in GSI and maturity indicate that the pike conger’s spawning season is around July. Gonadal histological observation revealed that pike conger has an asynchronous type of ovary, containing oocytes at various developmental stages, and that this fish is mature by at least 3-years-old, which is the youngest sample in this study. Considering the general rule that fish with the asynchronous type of ovary spawn several times during one spawning season , pike conger at least 3-years-old could spawn several times around July.
We found that the sex ratio was skewed towards females. Although the reason for this fact could not be established in this study, similar sex ratio imbalances have also been reported in other Anguilliformes [17–19]. In the case of the wild European conger eel (Conger conger), females were captured exclusively in the shallow coastal waters, whereas males were observed in deeper waters . In a recent study on the wild Japanese eel, large variations in sex ratio were observed among the sampling locations . Considering these previous reports and the present study, it appears that the habitats of Anguilliformes females and males may differ in the wild, although this needs to be confirmed by capturing pike congers from different sites or by bio-logging of pike conger females and males.
As described in the Introduction, A. anguilla, A. rostrata and A. japonica captured inshore always have immature gonads, and their spawning areas have been reported to be located offshore in the open ocean [20, 1], making it difficult to use these fish for studies of eel reproduction. In contrast, pike congers captured inshore have matured testes and ovaries with adipose cells, which are the typical features of Anguilliformes [17, 21–24]. Therefore, pike conger may represent a better model for studying the reproduction of Anguilliformes.
Histological observation also revealed that the migratory nucleus stage oocytes were present in the ovary of pike conger (stage IV). It is well established that this stage oocytes immediately precede hydration and ovulation [25, 26]. The spawning area of pike congers thus appears to be close to our sampling area in the Seto Inland Sea, although the precise location remains unknown. Unlike in catadromous Anguilliform species , changes in the external morphological features for spawning migration, such as skin color, eye-size, and color of the pectoral fin , have not been observed in the pike conger.
In this study, we measured the concentrations of sex steroid hormones (E2 and 11KT) in plasma during oogenesis (Fig. 5). However, the concentrations of both hormone were lower than that of other eel species (average concentration of E2 and 11KT in pike conger are 28.4 and 17.5 ng/ml, respectively) [23, 28]. These results raise the possibility that major steroid hormones of pike conger are different from other eel species.
Although the plasma level of E2 is low in pike conger, changes of this hormone during oogenesis were largely consistent with artificially matured Japanese eel induced by salmon pituitary extracts . Thus, E2 play important roles in oocyte growth (vitellogenesis) in pike conger, as well as Japanese eel.
Level of 11KT in pike conger increased gradually during vitellogenesis, similar to other eel species . In Japanese eel, 11KT is thought to be involved for control of lipid droplet accumulation into oocytes . In addition, ability of androgen to induce the spawning migration and silvering was reported in some eels [31–33]. Therefore, 11KT may play an important role in vitellogenesis and spawning migration in pike conger.
In this manuscript, we report that daggertooth pike conger in the Seto Inland Sea have mature gonads. Because naturally maturing fish can easily be captured and induced to spawn in captivity without any hormone treatment , this fish should be considered a potentially useful model for studies of reproduction in Anguilliformes. The importance of such research is highlighted by the depletion in natural stocks of some eel species in recent years, making them critically endangered . In this context, novel approaches to restore the natural resources of eels (e.g., the observation of the spawning behavior, test of new artificial maturation-inducing reagents, in vivo transplants of germ cells isolated from endangered eel species, and so on) can possibly be explored using pike conger as a valuable model.
We thank Dr. Kenzo Kaifu (Chuo University) and Dr. Ryoshiro Wakiya (Kyushu University) for their useful suggestions. We also thank Prof. Satoshi Katayama (Tohoku University) for helping with the analysis of fish age determination and Dr. Bindhu Paul for the critical reading of the manuscript. This work was, in part, supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26870391.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Tsukamoto K. Oceanic biology: spawning of eels near a seamount. Nature. 2006;439(7079):929. doi:10.1038/439929a.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chow S, Kurogi H, Mochioka N, Kaji S, Okazaki M, Tsukamoto K. Discovery of mature freshwater eels in the open ocean. Fish Sci. 2009;75(1):257–9. doi:10.1007/S12562-008-0017-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kurogi H, Mochioka N, Okazaki M, Takahashi M, Miller MJ, Tsukamoto K, et al. Discovery of a spawning area of the common Japanese conger Conger myriaster along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western North Pacific. Fish Sci. 2012;78(3):525–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsukamoto K, Chow S, Otake T, Kurogi H, Mochioka N, Miller MJ et al. Oceanic spawning ecology of freshwater eels in the western North Pacific. Nature Communications. 2011;2. doi:Artn179 doi:10.1038/Ncomms1174.
- Yamamoto K, Yamauchi K. Sexual maturation of Japanese eel and production of eel larvae in the aquarium. Nature. 1974;251:220–2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ohta H, Kagawa H, Tanaka H, Okuzawa K, Iinuma N, Hirose K. Artificial induction of maturation and fertilization in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Fish Physiol Biochem. 1997;17(1–6):163–9. doi:10.1023/A:1007720600588.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sato N, Kawazoel I, Suzuki Y, Aida K. Induction of vitellogenesis. Eel Biology. Springer; 2003. p. 387–99. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-65907-5_26. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-65907-5_26
- Kagawa H. Artificial induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Eel Biology. Springer; 2003. p. 401–14. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-65907-5_27. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-65907-5_27.
- Nelson JS. Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons; 2006. ISBN: 978-0-471-25031-9. http://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471250317.html
- Inoue JG, Miya M, Miller MJ, Sado T, Hanel R, Hatooka K, et al. Deep-ocean origin of the freshwater eels. Biol Lett. 2010;6(3):363–6. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0989.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watari S, Murata M, Hinoshita Y, Mishiro K, Oda S, Ishitani M. Re-examination of age and growth of daggertooth pike conger Muraenesox cinereus in the western Seto Inland Sea. Japan Fisheries Science. 2013;79(3):367–73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dufour S, Burzawa-Gerard E, Belle N, Sbaihi M, Vidal B. Reproductive Endocrinology of the European Eel, Anguilla anguilla. In: Aida K, Tsukamoto K, Yamauchi K, editors. Eel Biology. Springer Japan; 2003. p. 373–83. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-65907-5_25. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-65907-5_25.
- Yamamoto M, Katayama S. Age, Grotth, and Spawning Period of Bamboo Sole Heteromycteris japonica in the Seto Inland Sea. Japan Aquaculture Science. 2013;61(4):359–65.Google Scholar
- Utoh T, Horie N, Okamura A, Yamada Y, Tanaka S, Mikawa N, et al. Oogenesis in the common Japanese conger Conger myriaster. Fish Sci. 2003;69(1):181–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi Y, Alam MA, Horiguchi R, Shimizu A, Nakamura M. Sexually dimorphic expression of gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary of protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra): evidence that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) induces gonadal sex change. Biol Reprod. 2010;82(6):1030–6. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.109.080986.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murua H, Saborido-Rey F. Female reproductive strategies of marine fish species of the North Atlantic. J Northwest Atl fish sci. 2003;33:23–31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Correia A, Manso S, Coimbra J. Age, growth and reproductive biology of the European conger eel (Conger conger) from the Atlantic Iberian waters. Fish Res. 2009;99(3):196–202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yokouchi K, Kaneko Y, Kaifu K, Aoyama J, Uchida K, Tsukamoto K. Demographic survey of the yellow-phase Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Japan. Fish Sci. 2014;80(3):543–54. doi:10.1007/S12562-014-0735-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kotake A, Arai T, Okamura A, Yamada Y, Utoh T, Oka HP, et al. Ecological aspects of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, collected from coastal areas of Japan. Zool Sci. 2007;24(12):1213–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsukamoto K, Nakai I. Do all freshwater eels migrate? Nature. 1998;396(6712):635–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O'Sullivan S, Moriarty C, FitzGerald R, Davenport J, Mulcahy M. Age, growth and reproductive status of the European conger eel, Conger conger (L.) in Irish coastal waters. Fish Res. 2003;64(1):55–69.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hood P, Able K, Grimes C. Biology of the conger eel Conger oceanicus in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Mar Biol. 1988;98(4):587–96.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Utoh T, Okamura A, Yamada Y, Tanaka S, Mikawa N, Akazawa A, et al. Reproductive cycle in reared male common Japanese conger, Conger myriaster. Aquaculture. 2004;240(1):589–605.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lokman PM, Young G. Gonad histology and plasma steroid profiles in wild New Zealand freshwater eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii and A australis) before and at the onset of the natural spawning migration. II. Males. Fish Physiol Biochem. 1998;19(4):339–47. doi:10.1023/A:1007767330225.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kagawa H. Oogenesis in Teleost Fish. Aqua-BioScience Monographs. 2013;6(4):99–127. doi:10.5047/absm.2013.00604.0099.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lubzens E, Young G, Bobe J, Cerda J. Oogenesis in teleosts: How fish eggs are formed. Gen Comp Endocr. 2010;165(3):367–89. doi:10.1016/J.Ygcen.2009.05.022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Han Y-S, Liao I, Huang Y-S, He J-T, Chang C-W, Tzeng W-N. Synchronous changes of morphology and gonadal development of silvering Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Aquaculture. 2003;219(1):783–96.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lokman PM, Vermeulen GJ, Lambert JG, Young G. Gonad histology and plasma steroid profiles in wild New Zealand freshwater eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii and A. australis) before and at the onset of the natural spawning migration. I. Females*. Fish Physiol Biochem. 1998;19(4):325–38.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsubara H, Lokman PM, Kazetoa Y, Adachi S, Yamauchi K. Serum steroid profiles in artificially maturing female Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Aquaculture. 2005;243(1–4):393–402. doi:10.1016/J.Aquaculture.2004.10.018.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Endo T, Todo T, Lokman PM, Kudo H, Ijiri S, Adachi S, et al. Androgens and very low density lipoprotein are essential for the growth of previtellogenic oocytes from Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2011;84(4):816–25.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weltzien FA, Pasqualini C, Sebert ME, Vidal B, Le Belle N, Kah O, et al. Androgen-dependent stimulation of brain dopaminergic systems in the female European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Endocrinology. 2006;147(6):2964–73. doi:10.1210/en.2005-1477.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setiawan AN, Wylie MJ, Forbes EL, Lokman PM. The effects of 11-ketotestosterone on occupation of downstream location and seawater in the New Zealand shortfinned eel. Anguilla australis. Zoolog Sci. 2012;29(1):1–5. doi:10.2108/zsj.29.1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sudo R, Suetake H, Suzuki Y, Utoh T, Tanaka S, Aoyama J, et al. Dynamics of reproductive hormones during downstream migration in females of the Japanese eel. Anguilla japonica. Zool Sci. 2011;28(3):180–8. doi:10.2108/zsj.28.180.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Umezawa A, Otake T, Hirokawa J, Tsukamoto K, Okiyama M. Development of the eggs and larvae of the pike eel, Muraenesox cinereus. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology. 1991;38(1):35–40.Google Scholar
- Arai T. Do we protect freshwater eels or do we drive them to extinction? SpringerPlus. 2014;3(1):534.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar