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  1. Research article

    Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates’ tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is us...

    Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Daisuke Sakai, Jun Nishikawa and Euichi Hirose

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:7

    Published on: 30 May 2017

  2. Research article

    cryptochrome genes form an oscillatory loop independent of the per/tim loop in the circadian clockwork of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circ...

    Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q. Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura and Kenji Tomioka

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:5

    Published on: 6 April 2017

  3. Research article

    Group-housed females promote production of asexual ootheca in American cockroaches

    Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, ...

    Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami and Hiroshi Nishino

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:3

    Published on: 13 March 2017

  4. Research article

    Recurrent evolution of gut symbiotic bacteria in pentatomid stinkbugs

    Diverse animals are intimately associated with microbial symbionts. How such host–symbiont associations have evolved is a fundamental biological issue. Recent studies have revealed a variety of evolutionary re...

    Takahiro Hosokawa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi and Takema Fukatsu

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:24

    Published on: 30 November 2016

  5. Research article

    Whip spiders (Amblypygi) become water-repellent by a colloidal secretion that self-assembles into hierarchical microstructures

    Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of ...

    Jonas O. Wolff, Thomas Schwaha, Michael Seiter and Stanislav N. Gorb

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:23

    Published on: 28 November 2016

  6. Research article

    Two-headed mutants of the lamprey, a basal vertebrate

    This is the first report of two-headed (bicephaly) lamprey twins. Although lampreys sit at a crucial phylogenetic position, there are only a few reports on their teratology and developmental abnormalities.

    Daichi G. Suzuki

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:22

    Published on: 16 November 2016

  7. Research article

    Palaeospondylus as a primitive hagfish

    The taxonomic position of the Middle Devonian fish-like animal Palaeospondylus has remained enigmatic, due mainly to the inability to identify homologous cranial elements. This animal has been classified into nea...

    Tatsuya Hirasawa, Yasuhiro Oisi and Shigeru Kuratani

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:20

    Published on: 8 September 2016

  8. Research article

    Sex chromosome evolution in snakes inferred from divergence patterns of two gametologous genes and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences

    The discovery of differentially organized sex chromosome systems suggests that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of homologous chromosomes. Whereas karyotypes are highly conserved in alethinoph...

    Kazumi Matsubara, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda and Yoshinori Kumazawa

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:19

    Published on: 26 August 2016

  9. Research article

    Flexible selection of diversified Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms for osmoregulation in teleosts

    Multiple Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit isoforms express differentially in response to salinity transfer in teleosts but we observed that the isoform nomenclature is inconsistent with the phylogenetic relations...

    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki and Yoshio Takei

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:15

    Published on: 3 August 2016

  10. Research article

    On the sighted ancestry of blindness – exceptionally preserved eyes of Mesozoic polychelidan lobsters

    Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. Fossil species of Polychelida, howeve...

    Denis Audo, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Sylvain Charbonnier, Günter Schweigert, Carsten H. G. Müller and Steffen Harzsch

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:13

    Published on: 16 July 2016

  11. Research article

    Comparative morphology and development of extra-ocular muscles in the lamprey and gnathostomes reveal the ancestral state and developmental patterns of the vertebrate head

    The ancestral configuration of the vertebrate head has long been an intriguing topic in comparative morphology and evolutionary biology. One peculiar component of the vertebrate head is the presence of extra-o...

    Daichi G. Suzuki, Yuma Fukumoto, Miho Yoshimura, Yuji Yamazaki, Jun Kosaka, Shigeru Kuratani and Hiroshi Wada

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:10

    Published on: 14 April 2016

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