Neural crest mapping of the anuran cranium.
C) Mapping data in Bombina orientalis based on DiI injection onto the neural fold of the neurula (A). From an experiment performed by Olsson and Hanken (1996) . Origins and differentiation of three crest cell streams are colored in the right neural fold (A), and dorsal (B) and ventral (C) views of larval chondrocranium. Trigeminal crest cells are colored red, hyoid crest cells yellow, and circumpharyngeal crest cells blue. Numbers on the left neural fold indicate sites of injections. Note that the trabecular plate (tp in B), generally derived from the premandibular crest cells, is mapped on the hyoid crest in Bombina. (D-
F) Fate-mapping of adult Xenopus cranium. Dorsal (D), ventral (E) views. Hyoid crest cells are distributed extensively in the sphenethmoidal region of the cranium. (F) Dorsal view of the lower jaw. Note that a part of the articular (proximal end of the Meckel’s cartilage) contains hyoid crest cells. Abbreviations: ac, alary cartilage; bh, basihyal; C, origin of circumpharyngeal crest cells; cb, ceratobranchials; ch, ceratohyal; ct, cornu trabecula; H, origin of hyoid crest cells; ir, infrarostral; mc, Meckel’s cartilage; ns, nasal septum; oc, otic capsule; obl, oblique cartilage; pao, planum antorbitale; pep, pars externa plectri; pip, pars interna plectri; pmp, pars media plectri; posmp, posterior maxillary process; pq, palatoquadrate; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; sn, solum nasi; sr, suprarostral; T, origin of trigeminal crest cells; tp, trabecular plate; tym, tympanic annulus; vlp, ventrolateral process. Redrawn from [111,112].