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Table 1 Comparison of neural processing underlying learning in three insect species

From: Toward elucidating diversity of neural mechanisms underlying insect learning

  Crickets ( Gryllus bimaculatus ) Fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) Honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) (A or B?)
Learning A: OA and DA neurons mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively [7,18,19]. B: DA neurons mediate both reward and punishment signals; OA neurons send reward signal to DA neurons in appetitive learning [23,24,26]. A [16,20,21]
Memory retrieval A: OA and DA neurons participate in appetitive and aversive memory retrieval, respectively [12]. B: OA or DA neurons do not participate in memory retrieval [15,24]. A [21]
STM formation A: cAMP signaling does not participate in STM formation [32,35]. B: cAMP signaling participates in STM formation [4]. A [33]
LTM formation A: NO-cGMP signaling participates in LTM formation [32,35]. B: There is no report on participation of NO-cGMP signaling in LTM formation. A [43,44]
  1. LTM: long-term memory: STM: short-term memory.