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Table 2 Results of Z -tests for selection on fish owl MHC class IIβ sequences

From: Spatial and temporal variation at major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes in the endangered Blakiston’s fish owl

  d S d N Z P
(A) All alleles     
PBR 0.139 ± 0.059 0.464 ± 0.091 3.563 <0.001
Non-PBR 0.167 ± 0.040 0.095 ± 0.020 −1.644 1.000
All sites 0.158 ± 0.031 0.179 ± 0.028 0.309 0.499
(B) Expressed alleles    
PBR 0.109 ± 0.049 0.404 ± 0.081 3.100 0.001
Non-PBR 0.114 ± 0.033 0.058 ± 0.016 −1.579 1.000
All sites 0.112 ± 0.026 0.139 ± 0.026 0.801 0.212
(C) Unexpressed alleles    
PBR 0.161 ± 0.084 0.468 ± 0.105 2.589 0.005
Non-PBR 0.236 ± 0.074 0.127 ± 0.029 −1.413 1.000
All sites 0.213 ± 0.052 0.206 ± 0.034 −0.124 1.000
  1. Z-test for selection was conducted with (A) all alleles together, (B) only with expressed alleles, and (C) only with unexpressed alleles (see Figure 2 and [Additional file 1: Table S1]). The average rates of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous substitution (d N) were calculated for all sites, as well as for positions encoding amino acids in the putative peptide-binding region (PBR), and the remaining positions (putative non-PBR). Standard errors obtained through 1000 bootstrap replicates. The location of the PBR was inferred from the molecular structure of human leukocyte antigen class II, HLA-DR1 [54].