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Table 1 Taxonomic overview on the family level over the parental care mode of occasional cooperative breeders and of 9659 bird species, the number of species showing interspecific feeding, the proportion of cooperatively breeding species within all families, and the number of species in each taxonomic family; CB = cooperative breeder (including both family living cooperative breeders and species with unrelated helpers), FAM = family living species, NO-FAM = non-family living species, UN = unknown parental care mode

From: Occasional cooperative breeding in birds and the robustness of comparative analyses concerning the evolution of cooperative breeding

Taxonomic family Parental care mode of occasional CB species Inferred parental care mode of all species N species engaging in interspecific feeding Proportion CB species Total number of species
  FAM NO-FAM UN CB FAM NO-FAM UN    
Acanthisittidae 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0.50 2
Acanthizidae 0 0 0 31 15 10 8 0 0.48 64
Accipitridae 3 11 6 15 30 53 139 1 0.06 237
Aegithalidae 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 1 0.50 10
Aegithinidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0.00 4
Aegothelidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 0 0.00 8
Alaudidae 0 2 2 2 6 35 47 0 0.02 90
Alcedinidae 0 2 1 15 2 13 65 0 0.16 95
Alcidae 0 1 0 0 0 18 4 0 0.00 22
Anatidae 4 0 0 0 32 61 61 0 0.00 154
Anhimidae 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0.00 3
Anhingidae 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0.00 4
Anseranatidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Apodidae 0 0 0 12 0 24 62 0 0.12 98
Apterygidae 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 0.20 5
Aramidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.00 1
Ardeidae 0 0 0 0 5 42 15 0 0.00 62
Artamidae 0 0 0 9 0 2 0 0 0.82 11
Atrichornithidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0.00 2
Balaenicipitidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.00 1
Bombycillidae 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0.00 8
Brachypteraciidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 0.00 5
Bucconidae 0 0 0 5 0 4 24 0 0.15 33
Bucerotidae 1 0 0 21 8 12 13 0 0.39 54
Bucorvidae 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1.00 2
Burhinidae 0 0 0 0 2 4 3 0 0.00 9
Callaeatidae 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0.00 2
Campephagidae 1 0 0 5 5 19 55 0 0.06 84
Caprimulgidae 0 0 1 0 4 10 71 0 0.00 85
Cardinalidae 0 1 0 13 6 21 18 2 0.22 58
Cariamidae 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0.00 2
Casuariidae 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0.00 3
Cathartidae 0 0 0 0 3 1 3 0 0.00 7
Certhiidae 0 0 0 0 2 4 1 0 0.00 7
Charadriidae 0 0 2 1 8 33 23 0 0.02 65
Chionidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0.00 3
Chloropseidae 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 0 0.00 8
Ciconiidae 0 0 2 0 2 9 8 0 0.00 19
Cinclidae 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0.00 5
Cinclosomatidae 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0.60 5
Cisticolidae 0 0 0 14 48 27 29 1 0.12 118
Climacteridae 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0.71 7
Cnemophilidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0.00 3
Coerebidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.00 1
Coliidae 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 1.00 6
Colluricinclidae 0 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 0.46 13
Columbidae 0 0 0 0 3 276 25 0 0.00 304
Conopophagidae 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0.00 8
Coraciidae 0 0 1 1 0 3 8 0 0.08 12
Corcoracidae 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1.00 2
Corvidae 1 0 0 48 35 31 5 0 0.40 119
Cotingidae 0 0 0 1 5 60 28 0 0.01 94
Cracidae 1 0 0 0 38 6 6 0 0.00 50
Cracticidae 0 0 0 7 0 1 4 0 0.58 12
Cuculidae 0 2 1 4 4 87 47 0 0.03 142
Dasyornithidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0.00 3
Dendrocolaptidae 0 0 0 0 5 7 34 0 0.00 46
Dicaeidae 0 0 0 0 4 14 26 0 0.00 44
Dicruridae 0 0 0 1 4 7 12 0 0.04 24
Diomedeidae 0 0 0 1 0 13 0 0 0.07 14
Dromadidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.00 1
Dromaiidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.00 1
Dulidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Emberizidae 0 5 0 7 40 200 85 6 0.02 332
Estrildidae 1 0 0 0 26 89 23 0 0.00 138
Eupetidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 7 0 0.00 9
Eurylaimidae 0 0 0 3 0 3 9 0 0.20 15
Eurypygidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.00 1
Falconidae 0 5 1 15 3 14 31 0 0.24 63
Falcunculidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0.50 2
Formicariidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 59 0 0.00 61
Fregatidae 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0.00 5
Fringillidae 1 6 1 3 30 89 37 3 0.02 159
Furnariidae 0 0 0 8 2 16 209 0 0.03 235
Galbulidae 0 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 1.00 18
Gaviidae 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0.00 5
Glareolidae 0 0 0 0 3 7 7 0 0.00 17
Gruidae 0 0 0 0 13 1 1 0 0.00 15
Haematopodidae 1 0 0 1 5 3 1 0 0.10 10
Heliornithidae 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0.00 3
Hemiprocnidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0.00 4
Hirundinidae 0 6 0 0 3 65 19 1 0.00 87
Hydrobatidae 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 0.00 20
Ibidorhynchidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.00 1
Icteridae 0 1 0 11 26 62 12 0 0.10 111
Indicatoridae 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 0.00 17
Irenidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0.00 2
Jacanidae 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 0 0.00 8
Laniidae 0 1 0 6 8 16 1 0 0.19 31
Laridae 3 0 1 0 18 28 51 1 0.00 97
Leptosomidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.00 1
Machaerirhynchidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0.00 2
Malaconotidae 1 0 0 7 14 27 6 0 0.13 54
Maluridae 0 0 0 28 0 0 0 0 1.00 28
Megapodiidae 0 0 0 0 0 4 15 0 0.00 19
Melanocharitidae 0 0 0 0 1 4 7 0 0.00 12
Meliphagidae 1 5 0 21 13 89 54 0 0.12 177
Menuridae 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0.00 2
Meropidae 0 0 0 20 0 0 6 0 0.77 26
Mesitornithidae 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0.67 3
Mimidae 0 0 0 7 8 4 16 2 0.20 35
Momotidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0.00 9
Monarchidae 1 0 0 6 16 23 51 0 0.06 96
Motacillidae 0 4 1 0 10 32 23 1 0.00 65
Muscicapidae 0 7 0 26 24 55 179 3 0.09 284
Musophagidae 0 0 0 5 1 13 4 0 0.22 23
Nectariniidae 0 0 1 4 5 48 67 1 0.03 124
Neosittidae 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1.00 2
Numididae 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0.00 6
Nyctibiidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0.00 7
Odontophoridae 0 0 0 0 21 10 0 0 0.00 31
Opisthocomidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Oriolidae 0 0 1 2 1 15 12 0 0.07 30
Orthonychidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 0.00 5
Otididae 0 0 0 0 10 5 10 0 0.00 25
Pachycephalidae 0 0 0 1 1 0 36 0 0.03 38
Paradisaeidae 0 0 0 0 0 6 34 0 0.00 40
Pardalotidae 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0.25 4
Paridae 1 2 0 14 10 29 4 3 0.25 57
Parulidae 0 4 1 0 7 60 45 2 0.00 112
Passeridae 0 0 0 11 2 24 10 1 0.23 47
Pedionomidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.00 1
Pelecanidae 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 0 0.00 8
Pelecanoididae 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0.00 4
Petroicidae 0 1 0 12 0 6 25 1 0.28 43
Peucedramidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.00 1
Phaethontidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0.00 3
Phalacrocoracidae 0 1 0 0 1 34 1 0 0.00 36
Phasianidae 0 0 0 2 70 77 26 0 0.01 175
Philepittidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0.00 4
Phoenicopteridae 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0.00 5
Phoeniculidae 0 0 0 5 1 2 0 0 0.63 8
Picathartidae 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0.00 2
Picidae 2 2 3 18 44 31 123 3 0.08 216
Pipridae 0 0 0 0 2 24 27 0 0.00 53
Pittidae 0 0 0 0 0 2 29 0 0.00 31
Pityriaseidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Platysteiridae 0 0 0 13 12 5 0 0 0.43 30
Ploceidae 0 1 1 9 9 57 31 0 0.08 106
Podargidae 0 0 0 0 2 1 11 0 0.00 14
Podicipedidae 5 4 0 0 5 14 0 0 0.00 19
Polioptilidae 0 1 0 0 1 4 9 1 0.00 14
Pomatostomidae 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 1.00 5
Procellariidae 0 0 0 0 0 64 12 0 0.00 76
Promeropidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0.00 2
Prunellidae 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 1.00 13
Psittacidae 1 1 0 22 55 63 206 0 0.06 346
Psophiidae 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1.00 3
Pteroclididae 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 0 0.00 16
Ptilonorhynchidae 0 0 0 0 1 11 8 0 0.00 20
Pycnonotidae 0 0 0 21 38 39 35 0 0.16 133
Rallidae 0 1 0 19 6 14 93 0 0.14 132
Ramphastidae 0 0 0 38 12 21 52 0 0.31 123
Recurvirostridae 0 0 0 0 4 1 4 0 0.00 9
Reguliidae 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0.00 6
Remizidae 0 0 0 7 0 4 1 0 0.58 12
Rhabdornithidae 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0.00 3
Rheidae 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0.50 2
Rhinocryptidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 28 0 0.00 29
Rhipiduridae 0 0 1 0 1 2 39 0 0.00 42
Rhynochetidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Rostratulidae 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0.00 2
Sapayoaidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.00 1
Scolopacidae 0 0 0 0 1 33 53 0 0.00 87
Scopidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Sittidae 0 0 0 2 5 11 7 2 0.08 25
Spheniscidae 0 1 0 0 0 17 0 1 0.00 17
Steatornithidae 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.00 1
Stercorariidae 0 1 0 2 0 4 2 0 0.25 8
Strigidae 2 3 0 1 14 27 111 1 0.01 153
Struthionidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.00 1
Sturnidae 1 1 0 18 8 77 6 1 0.17 109
Sulidae 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 0 0.00 10
Sylviidae 0 1 1 21 16 50 177 0 0.08 264
Thamnophilidae 0 0 0 2 143 5 46 0 0.01 196
Thinocoridae 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0.00 4
Thraupidae 0 0 0 32 74 110 51 0 0.12 267
Threskiornithidae 0 0 0 0 3 14 15 0 0.00 32
Timaliidae 0 0 0 81 18 130 54 0 0.29 283
Tinamidae 0 0 0 0 0 7 39 0 0.00 46
Todidae 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 1.00 5
Trochilidae 0 0 0 0 0 310 8 0 0.00 318
Troglodytidae 3 0 0 17 15 9 35 3 0.22 76
Trogonidae 0 0 0 0 1 0 38 0 0.00 39
Turdidae 1 1 0 5 13 115 32 5 0.03 165
Turnicidae 0 0 0 0 3 10 3 0 0.00 16
Tyrannidae 1 0 0 6 37 56 293 3 0.02 392
Tytonidae 0 0 0 0 0 6 10 0 0.00 16
Upupidae 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1.00 1
Urocynchramidae 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.00 1
Vangidae 0 0 0 4 3 5 8 0 0.20 20
Viduidae 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 0.00 17
Vireonidae 0 0 0 0 5 15 31 0 0.00 51
Zosteropidae 0 1 0 6 5 49 34 0 0.06 94
Total 37 86 29 864 1257 3654 3884 51 0.09 9659
  1. Families with more than 25 % cooperative breeders are highlighted in bold. Taxonomy follows Jetz et al. [44]. See main text and [21] for definitions of the parental care mode. The inferred parental care mode follows Cockburn [18], updated based on the Handbook of the Birds of the World [45]. Observe that we categorized the Darwin finches Geospiza scandens and G. fortis as occasional cooperative breeders, based on a detailed study on helping at the nest in these two species [19]