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Table 1 Overview of different mechanisms that produce superhydrophobic surfaces (Water-CA > 150°) in plants and animals

From: Whip spiders (Amblypygi) become water-repellent by a colloidal secretion that self-assembles into hierarchical microstructures

Organism Principle References
Plants
 lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) wax crystals on nubby epidermis [1]
 nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) tubular wax crystals [2]
Insects
 damselfly wing (Calopteryx splendens) rod-like wax crystals [30]
 sawfly larva (Rhadinoceraea micans) wax crystals on nubby cuticle [17]
 butterfly wing (Papilio xuthus) microstructured scale-like setae [31]
 water strider (Gerris remigis) grooved setae [3]
 backswimmer (Notonecta glauca) setae and microtrichia [6]
 springtail (Tetrodontophora bielanensis) granulated epicuticle [12, 13]
 leaf hopper (Athysanus argentarius) nanoparticle impregnation [18]
Arachnids
 fishing spider (Dolomedes triton) setae with lipid coating [4]
 whip spider (Amblypygi) granulated secretion coat this study