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Table 1 Traction forces [mN], mean ± sd (n = 5), generated by adult Monochamus alternatus on different substrates

From: Strongest grip on the rod: tarsal morphology and attachment of Japanese pine sawyer beetles

Substrate Male Female
Horizontal glass plate 59.3 ± 32.59 a 66.0 ± 26.94 a
Vertical glass plate <4.0* < 5.1*
Horizontal glass rod 127.7 ± 43.71 b 74.1 ± 42.93 ab
Vertical glass rod 63.0 ± 20.73 ab 29.9 ± 10.80 b
  1. Letters indicate statistical differences in male or female traction forces between test substrates according to Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA on ranks, Tukey-test, p < 0.05, males: H 2,13 = 6.7, p = 0.034; females: H 2,13 = 7.3, p = 0.025; *, no attachment