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Table 4 Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) in thousands of years before present (kyBP), estimated from Y-chromosomal DNA markers by BATWING analysis, scaled using effective population size (Ne)

From: Paternal phylogeographic structure of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in northeastern Asia and the effect of male-mediated gene flow to insular populations

  TMRCA (mean) Splitting time (mean) 95% Credible interval Ne (mean) 95% Credible interval
All brown bears 472.7 186.8–1048.8 31,520 16,463–55,764
HK – (NA + EU + ET) 124.6 16.5–645.6
ET – (NA + EU + HK) 36.9 1.0–277.6
HK + ET 127.8 40.3–332.1 2457 865–6051
HK 55.3 15.7–153.9 1723 569–4380
ET 4.4 0.5–15.8 295 31–1125
  1. EU Eurasian Continent (Central Europe, Northern Europe, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, Sakhalin), NA North American Continent (Northwest America, ABC Islands, Canada), HK Hokkaido (Central Hokkaido, Eastern Hokkaido, Southern Hokkaido), ET Etorofu Island