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Table 3 The skull ligaments of columbiform birds [34] (van Gennip 1986)

From: Digital dissection of the head of the rock dove (Columba livia) using contrast-enhanced computed tomography

Abbreviation Ligament Origin Insertion Likely role
L1 palatomaxillary tip of the palatine maxilla restricts dorsal movement of the maxilla
L2 occipitomandibule occiput posterodorsal edge of the lower jaw restricts movements of the lower jaw
L3 quadratotemporal quadrate suprameaticus restricts medial movements of the lower jaw
L4 quadratosphenoidal posteromedial side of the quadrate parasphenoid restricts lateral and dorsal directed movements of the quadrate relative to the cranium
L5 postorbital postorbital lower jaw facilitates kinesis of the upper jaw
L6 quadratomandibular lateral quadrate lateral side of the lower jaw restricts rostral and medial movements of the quadrate relative to the lower jaw
L7 quadratomandibular rostral quadrate dorsal surface of the lower jaw restricts lateral movements of the quadrate relative to the lower jaw
L8 jugoprefrontal jugal prefrontal restricts movement of the jugal arch away from the prefrontal