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Fig. 3 | Zoological Letters

Fig. 3

From: Primary processing neuropils associated with the malleoli of camel spiders (Arachnida, Solifugae): a re-evaluation of axonal pathways

Fig. 3

3D visualizations of the synganglia of Gluvia dorsalis, Galeodes turkestanus and Oltacola chacoensis. a Prosoma of G. dorsalis with anterior synganglion and parts of the visual system, based on microCT analysis. Note that the first order visual neuropils are closely associated with the retina of the primary eyes, and connected with the synganglion by long visual nerves (note: color of retina and lamina does not follow color code below). b Frontal view on the synganglion of G. turkestanus, based on paraffin sections. Color-coding of neuropils see below. The protocerebrum contains the major neuropils of the mushroom body and arcuate body. In the ventral synganglion, glomerular neuropils are evident associated with the malleoli (magenta), pedipalps (light green), and walking legs (darker green). c Lateral view on the synganglion of G. turkestanus (compare b). The arcuate body is located in the posteriormost protocerebrum; it is accompanied ventrally by a smaller ventral domain. The second order visual neuropil is located between arcuate body and mushroom body. The mushroom body consists of an anteriorly located globuli cell cluster, a mushroom body neuropil, and the two posteriad projecting hafts. Further posteriorly, the two hafts converge to the main haft. The malleolar neuropil is located at the level of the neuromeres of the first walking legs. Note the different volumes of glomerular neuropils associated with pedipalps and walking legs. Neurite projections and projection neuron tract omitted (compare e). d Reconstructions of the mushroom bodies of G. turkestanus and O. chacoensis (globuli cells omitted). In both species, two mushroom body hafts project posteriad and converge into the main haft. Note that in O. chacoensis, two mushroom body neuropils per hemisphere are present. e Lateral view on the synganglion of O. chacoensis, based on paraffin histology. General features are similar to G. turkestanus (compare c). Projections of the fourth walking leg neuromere (associated with the malleoli) proceed anteriad (darker yellow) and shape the malleolar neuropil. From the malleolar neuropil, a paired projection neuron tract (purple) proceeds dorsad to innervate the mushroom body neuropil. Anterodorsally, the malleolar neuropil is flanked by glomerular neuropils of the pedipalpal neuromere (green). See also interactive 3D visualization of this reconstruction in the Additional file 1. f Frontolateral view of the malleolar pathway and major neuropils in O. chacoensis (compare e). The projections with axonal elements of malleolar receptor cells proceed in distinct bundles. The projection neuron tracts approach each other, and then begin to diverge to provide space for the esophagus, diverging further dorsally (compare Fig. 4b). Abbreviations: h1, h2 mushroom body hafts, ChN nerve of chelicerae, es esophagus, gc globuli cells, mbn mushroom body neuropil, mh mushroom body main haft, mn malleolar neuropil, npr neurite projection of the fourth walking leg neuromere (associated with the malleoli), PdN nerve of pedipalpus, pnt projection neuron tract, re retina, vn1 first order visual neuropil, vd ventral domain, vsN visual nerve, wl1-3‚ÄČN nerve of walking legs 1 to 3

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