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Table 1 Traits that have been measured and/or invoked to explain resistance

From: Natural selection, selective breeding, and the evolution of resistance of honeybees (Apis mellifera) against Varroa

Populations A. scutellata & A. capensis Africanized bees in South America Arnot Forest, New York Primorsky Gotland Sweden
Traits
Hygienic Behaviour yes yes No evidence yes no
VSH yes yes Yes yes no
Grooming yes yes Yes yes no
Non-reproduction yes yes No evidence yes yes
Shorter Developmental time yes yes no no no
Virus tolerance or resistance possibly possibly Possibly, No evidence no Yes
Life-history & spatial distribution of colonies no no yes yes no