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Table 1 Comparison of main jaw features and jaw types in different families within the Eunicida

From: New insights into the morphology and evolution of the ventral pharynx and jaws in Histriobdellidae (Eunicida, Annelida)

Family Ref. Mandibles Maxillae Type of jaws
Symmetry Number of rows of dental plates Presence of unidental forceps-like M1 Dorsal carriers Ventral carriers
Dorvilleidae [6] black, unmineralized, connected via ligament or two parts, ventral cutting plate present or absent symmetrical 2–4 −/+ unpaired (single) carrier-like struсture ctenognath
Eunicidae [6, 14] calcified partly fused shafts, ventral cutting plate present asymmetrical 2 + paired, broad and short unpaired and delicate eulabidognath
Hartmaniellidae [6, 15] black, not fused subsymmetrical 2 paired, moderately long to short symmetrognath
Histriobdellidae this study black, partly fused with long shafts, cutting plate present symmetrical 2 unpaired, long (rod-like) paired, short, sliding along mandibular shafts ctenognath
Lumbrineridae [6, 16] lightly calcified, completely or partly fused, cutting plate present symmetrical 2 −/+ paired, moderately long to short symmetrognath
Oenonidae [17] black, unmineralized, connected via ligament, ventral cutting plate present symmetrical plate number, plate size can vary between both sides 2 −/+ paired, long unpaired, long, well sclerotized prionognath
Onuphidae [6] calcified partly fused shafts, ventral cutting plate present asymmetrical 2 + paired, broad and short unpaired and delicate eulabidognath