Skip to main content

Table 2 Comparison of digit ratios (2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D) on the forelimbs and hindlimbs between adult males and females of the common toad Bufo bufo, according to both forelimb digit numbering protocols (variants I and II). The last two columns present estimated absolute values of the effect size according to Hedges’ g statistics with magnitude categories

From: Digit ratio in the common toad Bufo bufo: the effects of reduced fingers and of age dependency

Variant Digit ratio Limb Side   Males   Females T–test Hedges’ g
N Mean ± SD N Mean ± SD t df p value category
I 2D:3Da Fore L 157 0.673 ± 0.067 136 0.708 ± 0.065 *** −4.611 285.9 < 0.001 0.538 medium
R 155 0.674 ± 0.062 138 0.717 ± 0.078 *** −5.289 262.55 < 0.001 0.625 medium
II 2D:3D Fore L 157 1.271 ± 0.162 139 1.184 ± 0.104 *** 5.537 269.83 < 0.001 0.627 medium
R 157 1.187 ± 0.147 140 1.195 ± 0.161 −0.421 283.38 0.674 0.049 negligible
I 2D:4D Fore L 157 1.024 ± 0.154 139 1.035 ± 0.126 −0.728 292.12 0.467 0.084 negligible
R 156 1.084 ± 0.196 140 1.081 ± 0.164 0.167 292.44 0.867 0.019 negligible
II 2D:4D Fore L 157 0.850 ± 0.089 136 0.836 ± 0.089 1.266 290.91 0.207 0.146 negligible
R 155 0.797 ± 0.106 137 0.849 ± 0.089 *** −4.585 289.45 < 0.001 0.531 medium
I 3D:4D Fore L 157 1.526 ± 0.203 136 1.461 ± 0.144 ** 3.154 280.23 0.002 0.360 small
R 155 1.612 ± 0.258 137 1.507 ± 0.171 *** 4.159 269.63 < 0.001 0.475 small
n/a 2D:3D Hind L 157 0.709 ± 0.065 139 0.690 ± 0.057 * 2.590 293.86 0.010 0.298 small
R 157 0.695 ± 0.063 139 0.681 ± 0.077 1.635 268.44 0.103 0.192 negligible
n/a 2D:4D Hind L 157 0.413 ± 0.042 137 0.416 ± 0.035 −0.677 291.68 0.4989 0.078 negligible
R 157 0.413 ± 0.048 138 0.414 ± 0.058 − 0.053 266.98 0.958 0.006 negligible
n/a 3D:4D Hind L 158 0.584 ± 0.044 139 0.605 ± 0.053 *** −3.751 268.8 < 0.001 0.440 small
R 158 0.591 ± 0.055 140 0.608 ± 0.060 −1.743 283.41 0.082 −0.203 small
  1. a 2D:3D in variant I corresponds to 3D:4D in variant II – for additional information, see Fig. 1; */**/*** indicates a significant difference between sexes, with levels of significance as follows: * – p < 0.05; ** – p < 0.01, *** – p < 0.001; n/a – not applicable