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Table 4 Single and multiple loss-of-function homozygote mutations in Hox4 and Hox5 paralog group (PG) and effect on the axial skeleton in the mouse, in particular focusing on the cervical vertebral column. Mutations in Hox3 and Hox6 PG also affect vertebral development, but are usually confined to the atlanto-occipital and thoracic region [75, 76]. Ref. = references

From: Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in the mouse: towards a universal model for Synapsida

Gene Old namea Mutation target Homeotic transformation Modifications Ref.
Hox4 PG
(excl. HoxC-4)
- CV2-5 (partial) anterior transformation CV2-5 developing C1-type characteristics [40]
HoxA-4 Hox-1.4 CV3 partial anterior transformation CV3 developing CV2-type neural spine [38, 39]
CV7 posterior transformation cervical ribs at CV7
HoxB-4 Hox-2.6 CV2 partial anterior transformation CV2 developing anterior arch and extra ventral tubercula [77]
HoxC-4 Hox-3.5 CV7 partial posterior transformation cervical rib heads on CV7 [78]
TV3 anterior transformation prominent spinous process on TV3
TV8 anterior transformation vertebrosternal ribs on TV8
HoxD-4 Hox-4.2
/-5.1
CV1-CV3 anterior transformation fusion of neural arches at CV1-3 [79]
CV2 anterior transformation CV2 developing anterior arch, CV1-type lateral articular surfaces
CV7 posterior transformation cervical ribs at CV7
Hox5 PG - CV3-TV2 anterior transformation CV3-TV2 developing C2-type characteristics [63]
CV7 anterior transformation CV7 developing CV6-like transverse foramina
HoxA-5 Hox-1.3 CV6 anterior transformation absence of ventral tubercula on CV6 [61, 62]
CV7 partial posterior transformation cervical ribs on CV7
LV1 anterior transformation thoracic ribs on LV1
HoxB-5 Hox-2.1 CV6 anterior transformation absence of ventral tubercula on CV6 [32]
CV7 anterior transformation CV7 developing CV6-like ventral tubercula, transverse foramina
TV1 anterior transformation absence of ribs on TV1
shoulder girdle rostral shift of shoulder girdle forelimbs shifted anteriorly
HoxC-5 Hox-3.4 - - - -
  1. aafter Scott MP: A rational nomenclature for vertebrate homeobox (HOX) genes. Nucleic Acids Res 1993, 21:1687-1688