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  1. Venom production has evolved independently many times in the animal kingdom, although it is rare among mammals. Venomous shrews produce venom in their submandibular salivary glands and use it for food acquisit...

    Authors: Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris and Leszek Rychlik
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:12
  2. In gonochoristic animals, the sex determination pathway induces different morphological and behavioral features that can be observed between sexes, a condition known as sexual dimorphism. While many components...

    Authors: Kenta Sugiura, Yuki Yoshida, Kohei Hayashi, Kazuharu Arakawa, Takekazu Kunieda and Midori Matsumoto
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:11
  3. As in most colonial and sessile marine invertebrates, bryozoan life history is characterized by asexual propagation of zooids for colonial growth and by sexual production of larvae for dispersal. However, comp...

    Authors: Sebastian H. Decker, Sarah Lemer, Simone Decker, Masato Hirose, Mildred J. Johnson and Thomas Schwaha
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:10
  4. Multiple mating by avian females may increase hatching and overall brood success; however, reproductive effort and parental investment are costly, and females may be gradually depleted, with lowered outputs ov...

    Authors: Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Bing-Yuan Chuang, Hui-Ching Hsu, Yi-Jun Huang, Yu-Chen Su and Wen-Chen Lee
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:9
  5. The ring nematode genus Xenocriconemella De Grisse and Loof, 1965 comprises only one nominal species, Xenocriconemella macrodora (Taylor, 1936) De Grisse and Loof, 1965. The initial objective of the present study...

    Authors: A. Archidona-Yuste, I. Clavero-Camacho, A. N. Ruiz-Cuenca, C. Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, G. Liebanas, P. Castillo and J. E. Palomares-Rius
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:8
  6. Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are a deeply-conserved superfamily of metazoan transcription factors, which fine-tune the expression of their regulatory target genes in response to a plethora of sensory input...

    Authors: Tobias Theska, Tess Renahan and Ralf J. Sommer
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:7
  7. Bats are important pollinators, but they are difficult to study since they are volant and nocturnal. Thus, long-term studies of nectarivorous bats are scarce, despite their potential to help assess trends in b...

    Authors: Alyssa B. Stewart, Supawan Srilopan, Kanuengnit Wayo, Piriya Hassa, Michele R. Dudash and Sara Bumrungsri
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:5
  8. Pachyzoidae is a little-known family of deep-sea ctenostome Bryozoa that until now was monospecific for Pachyzoon atlanticum. Originally described from the Atlantic Ocean, the genus was also found off southeaster...

    Authors: Thomas Schwaha and Dennis P. Gordon
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:4

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2024 10:6

  9. Egg-laying mammals (monotremes) are considered “primitive” due to traits such as oviparity, cloaca, and incomplete homeothermy, all of which they share with reptiles. Two groups of monotremes, the terrestrial ...

    Authors: Shiina Sakamoto, Yuka Matsushita, Akihiro Itoigawa, Takumi Ezawa, Takeshi Fujitani, Kenichiro Takakura, Yang Zhou, Guojie Zhang, Frank Grutzner, Shoji Kawamura and Takashi Hayakawa
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:2
  10. Extant lineages of sea spiders (Pycnogonida) exhibit different types of development. Most commonly, pycnogonids hatch as a minute, feeding protonymphon larva with subsequent anamorphic development. However, es...

    Authors: Claudia P. Arango and Georg Brenneis
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2024 10:1
  11. The evolutionary origin of the jaw remains one of the most enigmatic events in vertebrate evolution. The trigeminal nerve is a key component for understanding jaw evolution, as it plays a crucial role as a sen...

    Authors: Motoki Tamura, Ryota Ishikawa, Yuki Nakanishi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Makiko Fukui, Takashi Saitou, Fumiaki Sugahara, Filippo M. Rijli, Shigeru Kuratani, Daichi G. Suzuki and Yasunori Murakami
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:23
  12. Phylum Tardigrada is represented by microscopic eight-legged panarthropods that inhabit terrestrial and marine environments. Although tardigrades are emerging model animals for areas of research including phys...

    Authors: Ji-Hoon Kihm, Krzysztof Zawierucha, Hyun Soo Rho and Tae-Yoon S. Park
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:22
  13. We report two Arctic species of incirrate octopods new to science. One is formally described here as Muusoctopus aegir Golikov, Gudmundsson & Sabirov sp. nov. while the other, Muusoctopus sp. 1, is not formally d...

    Authors: Alexey V. Golikov, Gudmundur Gudmundsson, Martin E. Blicher, Lis L. Jørgensen, Ekaterina I. Korneeva, Steinunn H. Olafsdottir, Elena I. Shagimardanova, Leyla H. Shigapova, Denis V. Zakharov, Olga L. Zimina and Rushan M. Sabirov
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:21
  14. The skin has multiple functions, and capillaries can penetrate the epidermis to shorten the diffusion path while allowing maintenance of overall epidermal thickness for nonrespiratory roles. However, a method ...

    Authors: Shuang Xu, Qiang Dai and Yuchi Zheng
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:19
  15. The environment around deep sea hydrothermal vents is characterized by an abundance of sulfur compounds, including toxic hydrogen sulfide. However, numerous communities of various invertebrates are found in it...

    Authors: Tomoko Koito, Yusuke Ito, Akihiko Suzuki, Akihiro Tame, Tetsuro Ikuta, Miwa Suzuki, Satoshi Mitsunobu, Makoto Sugimura and Koji Inoue
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:18
  16. Seasonal changes are more robust and dynamic at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes, and animals sense seasonal changes in the environment and alter their physiology and behavior to better adapt to harsh ...

    Authors: Ai Shinomiya, Daisuke Adachi, Tsuyoshi Shimmura, Miki Tanikawa, Naoshi Hiramatsu, Shigeho Ijiri, Kiyoshi Naruse, Mitsuru Sakaizumi and Takashi Yoshimura
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:16
  17. A significant number of researches in veterinary study have been focused on dental structure; however, there are few on the orientation and identification of their cusps. Therefore, the present article aimed t...

    Authors: Atef M. Erasha, Mohammed Nazih, Safwat Ali, Mohamed Alsafy, Samir El-gendy and Ramy K. A. Sayed
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:14

    The Correction to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2023 9:17

  18. The diverse reproductive strategies of elasmobranchs (sharks, rays, and skates) have attracted research attention, but the endocrine control of reproduction is still incompletely known in elasmobranchs. By lon...

    Authors: Koya Shimoyama, Mai Kawano, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Kotaro Tokunaga, Wataru Takagi, Makito Kobayashi and Susumu Hyodo
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:13
  19. Numerous hypotheses try to explain the unusual appearance of the human eye with its bright sclera and transparent conjunctiva and how it could have evolved from a dark-eyed phenotype, as is present in many non...

    Authors: Kai R. Caspar, Lisa Hüttner and Sabine Begall
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:12
  20. The hemiphractid frog genus Stefania is one of the many ancient (near-) endemic lineages of vertebrates inhabiting the biodiverse Pantepui biogeographical region in the Guiana Shield Highlands of northern South A...

    Authors: Philippe J. R. Kok
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:11
  21. It is well known that the celestial polarization is used as a compass cue by many species of insects and crustaceans. Although it has been shown that the sandhopper Talitrus saltator perceives polarized light and...

    Authors: Alberto Ugolini, Takahiko Hariyama, David C. Wilcockson and Luca Mercatelli
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:10
  22. To address how organisms adapt to a new environment, subterranean organisms whose ancestors colonized subterranean habitats from surface habitats have been studied. Photoreception abilities have been shown to ...

    Authors: Takuma Niida, Yuto Terashima, Hitoshi Aonuma and Shigeyuki Koshikawa
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:9
  23. The retinae of diurnal vertebrates have characteristics. Most lizards are strictly diurnal, and their retinal morphology is still unknown.

    Authors: Neveen E. R. El-Bakary, Mohamed A. M. Alsafy, Samir A. A. El-Gendy and Samar M. Ez Elarab
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:7
  24. Lungfish are the most closely related fish to tetrapods. The olfactory organ of lungfish contains lamellae and abundant recesses at the base of lamellae. Based on the ultrastructural and histochemical characte...

    Authors: Shoko Nakamuta, Yoshio Yamamoto, Masao Miyazaki, Atsuhiro Sakuma, Masato Nikaido and Nobuaki Nakamuta
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:6
  25. Metazoans have several mechanisms of internal defense for their survival. The internal defense system evolved alongside the organisms. Annelidae have circulating coelomocytes that perform functions comparable ...

    Authors: Alessio Alesci, Gioele Capillo, Angelo Fumia, Marco Albano, Emmanuele Messina, Nunziacarla Spanò, Simona Pergolizzi and Eugenia Rita Lauriano
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:5
  26. Avian wings as organs for aerial locomotion are furnished with a highly specialized musculoskeletal system compared with the forelimbs of other tetrapod vertebrates. Among the specializations, the propatagium,...

    Authors: Yurika Uno and Tatsuya Hirasawa
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:4
  27. Reproductive biology is an important topic that is well explored in many vertebrates, but information about frogs’ reproductive mechanisms could be improved. Therefore, this review aims to provide organized an...

    Authors: Maribel Méndez-Tepepa, Cuauhtémoc Morales-Cruz, Edelmira García-Nieto and Arely Anaya-Hernández
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:3
  28. Amphibians shape their limbs by differential outgrowth of digits and interdigital regions. In contrast, amniotes employ cell death, an additional developmental system, to determine the final shape of limbs. Pr...

    Authors: Satomi F. Ono, Ingrid Rosenburg Cordeiro, Osamu Kishida, Haruki Ochi and Mikiko Tanaka
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:2
  29. The liver of fish is considered an ideal model for studying the collaboration between environmental agents and the health state of the fish, where it gives good indications about aquatic ecosystem status. Ther...

    Authors: Marwa M. Hussein, Ramy K. A. Sayed and Doaa M. Mokhtar
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:1
  30. The evolution of automixis – i.e., meiotic parthenogenesis – requires several features, including ploidy restoration after meiosis and maintenance of fertility. Characterizing the relative contribution of nove...

    Authors: Giobbe Forni, Alexander S. Mikheyev, Andrea Luchetti and Barbara Mantovani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:14
  31. The inner ear morphology and size are linked to hearing and balance ability. The goal of this study was to determine the morphology and morphometrics of the dromedary camel's inner ear and how it influences he...

    Authors: Safwat Ali, Abdelraheem Esmat, Atef Erasha, Masahiro Yasuda and Mohamed Alsafy
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:12
  32. The medaka (Oryzias latipes) egg envelope (chorion) is composed of three major glycoproteins, Zona Interna (ZI)-1, -2, and -3, that originate in the spawning female liver as the precursor proteins Choriogenin (Ch...

    Authors: Devun S. Birk, Shinji Onose, Masato Kinoshita and Kenji Murata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:11
  33. Generally, successful testis transplantation has been considered to require immune suppression in the recipient to avoid rejection of the transplanted tissue. In the present study, we demonstrate in medaka tha...

    Authors: Daichi Kayo, Shinji Kanda and Kataaki Okubo
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:10
  34. The current distributions of organisms have been shaped by both current and past geographical barriers. However, it remains unclear how past geographical factors—currently cryptic on the sea floor—affected the...

    Authors: Jun J. Sato and Kouki Yasuda
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:9
  35. Photoperiodic responses are observed in many organisms living in the temperate zones. The circadian clock is involved in photoperiodic time measurement; however, the underlying molecular mechanism for detectio...

    Authors: Marika Nakagawa, Keiko Okano, Yuya Saratani, Yosuke Shoji and Toshiyuki Okano
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:8
  36. Venom production has evolved independently many times in the animal kingdom, although it is rare among mammals. Venomous shrews produce toxins in their salivary glands and use their venoms to hunt and store pr...

    Authors: Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak and Leszek Rychlik
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:7
  37. Urodele amphibians, Pleurodeles waltl and Ambystoma mexicanum, have organ-level regeneration capability, such as limb regeneration. Multipotent cells are induced by an endogenous mechanism in amphibian limb regen...

    Authors: Akira Satoh, Rena Kashimoto, Ayaka Ohashi, Saya Furukawa, Sakiya Yamamoto, Takeshi Inoue, Toshinori Hayashi and Kiyokazu Agata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:6
  38. Fish possess one olfactory organ called the olfactory epithelium (OE), by which various chemical substances are detected. On the other hand, tetrapods possess two independent olfactory organs called the main o...

    Authors: Atsuhiro Sakuma, Zicong Zhang, Eri Suzuki, Tatsuki Nagasawa and Masato Nikaido
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:5
  39. For corals, metamorphosis from planktonic larvae to sedentary polyps is an important life event, as it determines the environment in which they live for a lifetime. Although previous studies on the reef-buildi...

    Authors: Yuu Ishii, Masayuki Hatta, Ryusaku Deguchi, Masakado Kawata and Shinichiro Maruyama
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:4
  40. Recent phylogenomic studies have revealed a robust, new hypothesis of annelid phylogeny. Most surprisingly, a few early branching lineages formed a basal grade, whereas the majority of taxa were categorized as...

    Authors: Günter Purschke, Stepan Vodopyanov, Anjilie Baller, Tim von Palubitzki, Thomas Bartolomaeus and Patrick Beckers
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:3
  41. Social insect colonies constantly produce dead insects, which cause sanitary problems and potentially foster deadly pathogens and parasites. Hence, many social insects have evolved a variety of hygienic behavi...

    Authors: Harunobu Shibao, Mayako Kutsukake, Shigeru Matsuyama and Takema Fukatsu
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:2
  42. Egg envelopes (chorions) in medaka, Oryzias latipes, are composed of three major glycoproteins: ZI-1, − 2, and − 3. These gene-encoded chorion glycoproteins are expressed in the liver and/or ovarian oocytes of se...

    Authors: Kenji Murata and Masato Kinoshita
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:1
  43. The left-sided position of the mouth in amphioxus larvae has fascinated researchers for a long time. Despite the fundamental importance of mouth development in the amphioxus, the molecular regulation of its de...

    Authors: Guangwei Hu, Guang Li and Yiquan Wang
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:16

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