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  1. The relationship between development and evolution has been a central theme in evolutionary developmental biology. Across the vertebrates, the most highly conserved gene expression profiles are found at mid-em...

    Authors: Masahiro Uesaka, Shigeru Kuratani, Hiroyuki Takeda and Naoki Irie

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Metazoans have evolved a great variety of life histories in response to environmental conditions. A unique example is encountered in dicyemid mesozoans. In addition to a highly simplified adult body comprising...

    Authors: Tsai-Ming Lu, Hidetaka Furuya and Noriyuki Satoh

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Even subtle changes in environmental factors can exert behavioral effects on creatures, which may alter interspecific interactions and eventually affect the ecosystem. However, how changes in environmental fac...

    Authors: Masato Mori, Maria Narahashi, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Miyuki Ishida, Nobuyoshi Kumagai, Yuki Sato, Reza Bagherzadeh, Kiyokazu Agata and Takeshi Inoue

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Teleost paired fins are composed of two endoskeletal domains, proximal and distal radials, and an exoskeletal domain, the fin ray. The zebrafish pectoral fin displays elaborately patterned radials along the an...

    Authors: Hiroki Hamada, Toshiaki Uemoto, Yoshitaka Tanaka, Yuki Honda, Keiichi Kitajima, Tetsuya Umeda, Atsushi Kawakami, Minori Shinya, Koichi Kawakami, Koji Tamura and Gembu Abe

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In cephalochordates (amphioxus), the notochord runs along the dorsal to the anterior tip of the body. In contrast, the vertebrate head is formed anterior to the notochord, as a result of head organizer formati...

    Authors: Yuuri Yasuoka, Yukiko Tando, Kaoru Kubokawa and Masanori Taira

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Arachnids possess highly specialized and unorthodox sense organs, such as the unique pectines of Scorpiones and the malleoli of Solifugae. While the external morphology, numbers, and shapes of sensory organs a...

    Authors: Andy Sombke, Anja E. Klann, Elisabeth Lipke and Harald Wolf

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  7. CatSper is a sperm-specific calcium ion (Ca2+) channel, which regulates sperm flagellar beating by tuning cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. Although this Ca2+ channel is essential for mammalian fertilization, rece...

    Authors: Francisco Romero and Takuya Nishigaki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Sea cucumbers (a class of echinoderms) exhibit a high capacity for regeneration, such that, following ejection of inner organs in a process called evisceration, the lost organs regenerate. There are two ways b...

    Authors: Akari Okada and Mariko Kondo

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Calmanostraca is a group of branchiopod eucrustaceans, with Triops cancriformis and Lepidurus apus as most prominent representatives. Both are regularly addressed with the inaccurate tag “living fossil”, suggesti...

    Authors: Philipp Wagner, Joachim T. Haug and Carolin Haug

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Catfish (Siluriformes) are characterized by unique morphologies, including enlarged jaws with movable barbels and taste buds covering the entire body surface. Evolution of these characteristics was a crucial s...

    Authors: Tatsuya Itoyama, Makiko Fukui, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Saki Kaneko, Fumiaki Sugahara and Yasunori Murakami

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Radiodonta, large Palaeozoic nektonic predators, occupy a pivotal evolutionary position as stem-euarthropods and filled important ecological niches in early animal ecosystems. Analyses of the anatomy and phylo...

    Authors: Stephen Pates, Allison C. Daley and Nicholas J. Butterfield

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The rock dove (or common pigeon), Columba livia, is an important model organism in biological studies, including research focusing on head muscle anatomy, feeding kinematics, and cranial kinesis. However, no inte...

    Authors: Marc E. H. Jones, David J. Button, Paul M. Barrett and Laura B. Porro

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Diverse insects are intimately associated with microbial symbionts, which play a variety of biological roles in their adaptation to and survival in the natural environment. Such insects often possess specializ...

    Authors: Sayumi Oishi, Minoru Moriyama, Ryuichi Koga and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The crustacean class Branchiopoda includes fairy shrimps, clam shrimps, tadpole shrimps, and water fleas. Branchiopods, which are well known for their great variety of reproductive strategies, date back to the...

    Authors: Andrea Luchetti, Giobbe Forni, Alyza M. Skaist, Sarah J. Wheelan and Barbara Mantovani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Tardigrades (water bears) are microscopic invertebrates of which the anatomy has been well studied using traditional techniques, but a comprehensive three-dimensional reconstruction has never been performed. I...

    Authors: Vladimir Gross, Mark Müller, Lorenz Hehn, Simone Ferstl, Sebastian Allner, Martin Dierolf, Klaus Achterhold, Georg Mayer and Franz Pfeiffer

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:14

    Content type: Research article

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  16. End-Cretaceous niche-filling by benthic Mesozoic survivors resulted in a prominent increase of durophagous fish families, resulting in the appearance of the earliest representatives of several extant fish line...

    Authors: Giuseppe Marramà, Giorgio Carnevale, Gavin J. P. Naylor and Jürgen Kriwet

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Branched structures are found in many natural settings, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their formation in animal development have extensively studied in recent years. Despite their import...

    Authors: Akiyo Fujiki, Shiting Hou, Ayaki Nakamoto and Gaku Kumano

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The dentition in extant holocephalans (Chondrichthyes) comprises three pairs of continuously growing dental plates, rather than the separate teeth characterizing elasmobranchs. We investigated how different ty...

    Authors: Moya Meredith Smith, Charlie Underwood, Tomasz Goral, Christopher Healy and Zerina Johanson

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In the darkness of the ocean, an impressive number of taxa have evolved the capability to emit light. Many mesopelagic organisms emit a dim ventral glow that matches with the residual environmental light in or...

    Authors: Laurent Duchatelet, Nicolas Pinte, Taketeru Tomita, Keiichi Sato and Jérôme Mallefet

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In the previous paper published in 2017, we described the structure of Hox gene cluster of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, and discussed the scenario for the disintegration of Hox gene clusters during evolutio...

    Authors: Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh and Hidetoshi Saiga

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:8

    Content type: Update

    Published on:

    The Research article to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2017 3:17

  21. The free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a powerful model organism for use in studying mechanisms of regeneration and stem cell regulation due to its combination of biological and experimental prope...

    Authors: Jakub Wudarski, Kirill Ustyantsev, Lisa Glazenburg and Eugene Berezikov

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The pharyngeal arches are a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the head of vertebrate embryos, and it is within these segments that components of the later anatomy are laid down. In most vertebra...

    Authors: Subathra Poopalasundaram, Jo Richardson, Annabelle Scott, Alex Donovan, Karen Liu and Anthony Graham

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  23. A major question in stream ecology is how invertebrates cope with flow. In aquatic gastropods, typically, larger and more globular shells with larger apertures are found in lotic (flowing water) versus lentic ...

    Authors: Gerlien Verhaegen, Hendrik Herzog, Katrin Korsch, Gerald Kerth, Martin Brede and Martin Haase

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Sea spiders (Pycnogonida) are an abundant faunal element of the Southern Ocean (SO). Several recent phylogeographical studies focused on the remarkably diverse SO pycnogonid fauna, resulting in the identificat...

    Authors: Georg Brenneis and Claudia P. Arango

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In the context of evolutionary arthopodial transformations, centipede ultimate legs exhibit a plethora of morphological modifications and behavioral adaptations. Many species possess significantly elongated, t...

    Authors: Matthes Kenning, Vanessa Schendel, Carsten H. G. Müller and Andy Sombke

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:3

    Content type: Research article

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  26. For many years, Paramacrobiotus richtersi was reported to consist of populations with different chromosome numbers and reproductive modes. To clarify the relationships among different populations, the type locali...

    Authors: Roberto Guidetti, Michele Cesari, Roberto Bertolani, Tiziana Altiero and Lorena Rebecchi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The group Vertebrata is currently placed as a subphylum in the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, Cephalochordata (lancelets) and Urochordata (ascidians). The past three decades, have seen extr...

    Authors: Naoki Irie, Noriyuki Satoh and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:32

    Content type: Review

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  28. Adult mantis lacewings, neuropteran holometabolan insects of the group Mantispidae, possess anterior walking legs transformed into prey-catching grasping appendages reminiscent of those of praying mantises. Wh...

    Authors: Joachim T. Haug, Patrick Müller and Carolin Haug

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:31

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The study of chondrocrania has a long tradition with a focus on single specimens and stages. It revealed great interspecific diversity and a notion of intraspecific variation. As an embryonic structure, the ch...

    Authors: Evelyn Hüppi, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Athanasia C. Tzika and Ingmar Werneburg

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:29

    Content type: Research article

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  30. While skeletal evolution has been extensively studied, the evolution of limb muscles and brachial plexus has received less attention. In this review, we focus on the tempo and mode of evolution of forelimb mus...

    Authors: Tatsuya Hirasawa and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:27

    Content type: Review

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  31. Entrainment to the environmental light cycle is an essential property of the circadian clock. Although the compound eye is known to be the major photoreceptor necessary for entrainment in many insects, the mol...

    Authors: Yuki Kutaragi, Atsushi Tokuoka, Yasuaki Tomiyama, Motoki Nose, Takayuki Watanabe, Tetsuya Bando, Yoshiyuki Moriyama and Kenji Tomioka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:26

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Following publication of the original article [1] the author advised that (in the ‘Discussion’ section) the letter ‘L’ and ‘D’ in some expressions (namely, D and L in L-Trp, D-Trp and L-Asn-D-Trp-L-Phe) were n...

    Authors: Haruka Nakagawa, Kiyono Sekii, Takanobu Maezawa, Makoto Kitamura, Soichiro Miyashita, Marina Abukawa, Midori Matsumoto and Kazuya Kobayashi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:25

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Zoological Letters 2018 4:14

  33. Planarians are non-parasitic Platyhelminthes (flatworms) famous for their regeneration ability and for having a well-organized brain. Dugesia japonica is a typical planarian species that is widely distributed in ...

    Authors: Yang An, Akane Kawaguchi, Chen Zhao, Atsushi Toyoda, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi, Seyed Ahmad Mousavi, Reza Bagherzadeh, Takeshi Inoue, Hajime Ogino, Asao Fujiyama, Hamidreza Chitsaz, Hossein Baharvand and Kiyokazu Agata

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:24

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Mudskippers are amphibious fishes that use their pectoral fins to move on land. Their pectoral fins are specifically modified for terrestrial locomotion. Studies of the anatomy and kinematics of adult mudskipp...

    Authors: Eri Okamoto, Hieu Van Mai, Atsushi Ishimatsu and Mikiko Tanaka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:23

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Geographical patterns and degrees of genetic divergence among populations differ between species, reflecting relative potentials for speciation or cladogenesis and differing capacities for environmental adapta...

    Authors: Antonio Cádiz, Nobuaki Nagata, Luis M. Díaz, Yukari Suzuki-Ohno, Lázaro M. Echenique-Díaz, Hiroshi D. Akashi, Takashi Makino and Masakado Kawata

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:21

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Ticks can survive long periods without feeding but, when feeding, ingest large quantities of blood, resulting in a more than 100-fold increase of body volume. We study morphological adaptations to changes in o...

    Authors: J. Matthias Starck, Lisa Mehnert, Anja Biging, Juliana Bjarsch, Sandra Franz-Guess, Daniel Kleeberger and Marie Hörnig

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:20

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Tyramine, known as a “trace amine” in mammals, modulates a wide range of behavior in invertebrates; however, the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms are not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

    Authors: Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Masamichi Ohkura and Junichi Nakai

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:19

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The skeletal musculature of gnathostomes, which is derived from embryonic somites, consists of epaxial and hypaxial portions. Some hypaxial muscles, such as tongue and limb muscles, undergo de-epithelializatio...

    Authors: Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shunya Kuroda and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:18

    Content type: Research article

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