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  1. Content type: Research article

    Mudskippers are amphibious fishes that use their pectoral fins to move on land. Their pectoral fins are specifically modified for terrestrial locomotion. Studies of the anatomy and kinematics of adult mudskipp...

    Authors: Eri Okamoto, Hieu Van Mai, Atsushi Ishimatsu and Mikiko Tanaka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:23

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Geographical patterns and degrees of genetic divergence among populations differ between species, reflecting relative potentials for speciation or cladogenesis and differing capacities for environmental adapta...

    Authors: Antonio Cádiz, Nobuaki Nagata, Luis M. Díaz, Yukari Suzuki-Ohno, Lázaro M. Echenique-Díaz, Hiroshi D. Akashi, Takashi Makino and Masakado Kawata

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:21

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Ticks can survive long periods without feeding but, when feeding, ingest large quantities of blood, resulting in a more than 100-fold increase of body volume. We study morphological adaptations to changes in o...

    Authors: J. Matthias Starck, Lisa Mehnert, Anja Biging, Juliana Bjarsch, Sandra Franz-Guess, Daniel Kleeberger and Marie Hörnig

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:20

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Tyramine, known as a “trace amine” in mammals, modulates a wide range of behavior in invertebrates; however, the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms are not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

    Authors: Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Masamichi Ohkura and Junichi Nakai

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:19

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The skeletal musculature of gnathostomes, which is derived from embryonic somites, consists of epaxial and hypaxial portions. Some hypaxial muscles, such as tongue and limb muscles, undergo de-epithelializatio...

    Authors: Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shunya Kuroda and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:18

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Turbellarian species can post-embryonically produce germ line cells from pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts, which enables some of them to switch between an asexual and a sexual state in response to envir...

    Authors: Haruka Nakagawa, Kiyono Sekii, Takanobu Maezawa, Makoto Kitamura, Soichiro Miyashita, Marina Abukawa, Midori Matsumoto and Kazuya Kobayashi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:14

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Paleozoic holocephalian tooth plates are rarely found articulated in their original positions. When they are found isolated, it is difficult to associate the small, anterior tooth plates with the larger, more ...

    Authors: Wayne M. Itano and Lance L. Lambert

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:12

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Investigation of the internal tissues and organs of a macroscopic organism usually requires destructive processes, such as dissection or sectioning. These processes are inevitably associated with the loss of s...

    Authors: Alu Konno and Shigetoshi Okazaki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:13

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Pearl production by transplantation in Akoya pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) is a biotechnology developed in Japan that skillfully utilizes the pearl-forming ability of oysters. In this method, cultured pearls are...

    Authors: Jeane Siswitasari Mulyana, Toshiharu Iwai, Masaharu Takahashi, Achmad Farajallah, Yusli Wardiatno, Chiemi Miura and Takeshi Miura

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:11

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Sciuromorpha (squirrels and close relatives) are diverse in terms of body size and locomotor behavior. Individual species are specialized to perform climbing, gliding or digging behavior, the latter being the ...

    Authors: Maja Mielke, Jan Wölfer, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H. van Heteren, Eli Amson and John A. Nyakatura

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:10

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Aphids display “cyclic parthenogenesis,” in which parthenogenetically and sexually reproducing morphs seasonally alternate in the aphid annual life cycles. There are various characteristics that differ between...

    Authors: Koki Murano, Kota Ogawa, Tomonari Kaji and Toru Miura

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:9

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Invisibility in the water column is a crucial strategy for gelatinous zooplanktons in avoiding detection by visual predators, especially for animals distributed in the euphotic zone during the daytime; i.e., s...

    Authors: Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Jun Nishikawa and Euichi Hirose

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:7

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Endogenous viral elements play important roles in eukaryotic evolution by giving rise to genetic novelties. Herpesviruses are a large family of DNA viruses, most of which do not have the ability to endogenize ...

    Authors: Yusuke Inoue, Masahiko Kumagai, Xianbo Zhang, Tomonori Saga, Deshou Wang, Akihiko Koga and Hiroyuki Takeda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:6

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostom...

    Authors: Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:5

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Understanding feedback between above- and below-ground processes of biological communities is a key to the effective management of natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, as above- and below-ground food ...

    Authors: Hirokazu Toju and Yuki G. Baba

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:4

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the ...

    Authors: Ikuko Watakabe, Hisashi Hashimoto, Yukiko Kimura, Saori Yokoi, Kiyoshi Naruse and Shin-ichi Higashijima

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:3

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Flight feathers, a type of feather that is unique to extant/extinct birds and some non-avian dinosaurs, are the most evolutionally advanced type of feather. In general, feather types are formed in the second o...

    Authors: Mao Kondo, Tomoe Sekine, Taku Miyakoshi, Keiichi Kitajima, Shiro Egawa, Ryohei Seki, Gembu Abe and Koji Tamura

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:2

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Teleosts transiting from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) environments face an immediate osmotic stress from ion influxes and water loss, but some euryhaline species such as eels can maintain a stable plasma o...

    Authors: Marty Kwok Shing Wong, Takehiro Tsukada, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki and Yoshio Takei

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:22

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Sex-biased dispersal is widespread among mammals, including the brown bear (Ursus arctos). Previous phylogeographic studies of the brown bear based on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA have shown intraspecif...

    Authors: Daisuke Hirata, Tsutomu Mano, Alexei V. Abramov, Gennady F. Baryshnikov, Pavel A. Kosintsev, Koichi Murata and Ryuichi Masuda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:21

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Gene duplication is considered important to increasing the genetic diversity in animals. In fish, visual pigment genes are often independently duplicated, and the evolutionary significance of such duplications...

    Authors: Yoji Nakamura, Motoshige Yasuike, Miyuki Mekuchi, Yuki Iwasaki, Nobuhiko Ojima, Atushi Fujiwara, Seinen Chow and Kenji Saitoh

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:18

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structu...

    Authors: Mari Kawaguchi, Ryohei Okubo, Akari Harada, Kazuki Miyasaka, Kensuke Takada, Junya Hiroi and Shigeki Yasumasu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:19

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically po...

    Authors: Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh and Hidetoshi Saiga

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:17

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Plant-dwelling beetles overcome challenging attachment hurdles by means of ellaborated, tarsal attachment devices, which are frequently equipped with hairy adhesive pads. While the tarsal functional morphology...

    Authors: Dagmar Voigt, Takuma Takanashi, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Kenichi Yazaki, Katsushi Kuroda, Remi Tsubaki and Naoe Hosoda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:16

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  24. Content type: Research article

    We have found that the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana) differs in laboratory strains originating from different regions of Japan. We have investigated ...

    Authors: Aya Satoh, Finlay J. Stewart, Hisaharu Koshitaka, Hiroshi D. Akashi, Primož Pirih, Yasushi Sato and Kentaro Arikawa

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:14

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a stored-product pest beetle. Early histological studies dating back to 1930s have reported that R. dominica and other bostrichid species ...

    Authors: Genta Okude, Ryuichi Koga, Toshinari Hayashi, Yudai Nishide, Xian-Ying Meng, Naruo Nikoh, Akihiro Miyanoshita and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:13

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physi...

    Authors: Michael Gerth, Ronny Wolf, Christoph Bleidorn, Julia Richter, Rebekka Sontowski, Jasmin Unrein, Martin Schlegel and Axel Gruppe

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:12

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by ph...

    Authors: Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto and Toshitaka Ikeuchi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:11

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The CRISPR/Cas system is a powerful genome editing tool that enables targeted genome modifications in various organisms. In medaka (Oryzias latipes), targeted mutagenesis with small insertions and deletions using...

    Authors: Yu Murakami, Satoshi Ansai, Akari Yonemura and Masato Kinoshita

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:10

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is us...

    Authors: Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Daisuke Sakai, Jun Nishikawa and Euichi Hirose

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:7

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circ...

    Authors: Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q. Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura and Kenji Tomioka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:5

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The T-box family transcription-factor gene, Brachyury, has two expression domains with discrete functions during animal embryogenesis. The primary domain, associated with the blastopore, is shared by most metazoa...

    Authors: Jun Inoue, Yuuri Yasuoka, Hiroki Takahashi and Noriyuki Satoh

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:4

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, ...

    Authors: Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami and Hiroshi Nishino

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:3

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Two essential processes, oocyte maturation and ovulation, are independently induced, but proceed cooperatively as the final step in oogenesis before oocytes become fertilizable. Although these two processes ar...

    Authors: Wanlada Klangnurak and Toshinobu Tokumoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:2

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  34. Content type: Review

    An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelph...

    Authors: Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra and Analía M. Forasiepi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:1

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Phylactolaemata is the earliest branch and the sister group to all extant bryozoans. It is considered a small relict group that, perhaps due to the invasion of freshwater, has retained ancestral features. Reco...

    Authors: Thomas Schwaha, Masato Hirose and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:25

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Diverse animals are intimately associated with microbial symbionts. How such host–symbiont associations have evolved is a fundamental biological issue. Recent studies have revealed a variety of evolutionary re...

    Authors: Takahiro Hosokawa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:24

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of ...

    Authors: Jonas O. Wolff, Thomas Schwaha, Michael Seiter and Stanislav N. Gorb

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:23

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  38. Content type: Research article

    This is the first report of two-headed (bicephaly) lamprey twins. Although lampreys sit at a crucial phylogenetic position, there are only a few reports on their teratology and developmental abnormalities.

    Authors: Daichi G. Suzuki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:22

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Diuronotus is one of the most recently described genera of Paucitubulatina, one of the three major clades in Gastrotricha. Its morphology suggests that Diuronotus is an early branch of...

    Authors: Nicolas Bekkouche and Katrine Worsaae

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:21

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