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  1. Seasonal changes are more robust and dynamic at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes, and animals sense seasonal changes in the environment and alter their physiology and behavior to better adapt to harsh ...

    Authors: Ai Shinomiya, Daisuke Adachi, Tsuyoshi Shimmura, Miki Tanikawa, Naoshi Hiramatsu, Shigeho Ijiri, Kiyoshi Naruse, Mitsuru Sakaizumi and Takashi Yoshimura
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:16
  2. A significant number of researches in veterinary study have been focused on dental structure; however, there are few on the orientation and identification of their cusps. Therefore, the present article aimed t...

    Authors: Atef M. Erasha, Mohammed Nazih, Safwat Ali, Mohamed Alsafy, Samir El-gendy and Ramy K. A. Sayed
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:14

    The Correction to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2023 9:17

  3. The diverse reproductive strategies of elasmobranchs (sharks, rays, and skates) have attracted research attention, but the endocrine control of reproduction is still incompletely known in elasmobranchs. By lon...

    Authors: Koya Shimoyama, Mai Kawano, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Kotaro Tokunaga, Wataru Takagi, Makito Kobayashi and Susumu Hyodo
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:13
  4. Numerous hypotheses try to explain the unusual appearance of the human eye with its bright sclera and transparent conjunctiva and how it could have evolved from a dark-eyed phenotype, as is present in many non...

    Authors: Kai R. Caspar, Lisa Hüttner and Sabine Begall
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:12
  5. The hemiphractid frog genus Stefania is one of the many ancient (near-) endemic lineages of vertebrates inhabiting the biodiverse Pantepui biogeographical region in the Guiana Shield Highlands of northern South A...

    Authors: Philippe J. R. Kok
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:11
  6. It is well known that the celestial polarization is used as a compass cue by many species of insects and crustaceans. Although it has been shown that the sandhopper Talitrus saltator perceives polarized light and...

    Authors: Alberto Ugolini, Takahiko Hariyama, David C. Wilcockson and Luca Mercatelli
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:10
  7. To address how organisms adapt to a new environment, subterranean organisms whose ancestors colonized subterranean habitats from surface habitats have been studied. Photoreception abilities have been shown to ...

    Authors: Takuma Niida, Yuto Terashima, Hitoshi Aonuma and Shigeyuki Koshikawa
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:9
  8. The retinae of diurnal vertebrates have characteristics. Most lizards are strictly diurnal, and their retinal morphology is still unknown.

    Authors: Neveen E. R. El-Bakary, Mohamed A. M. Alsafy, Samir A. A. El-Gendy and Samar M. Ez Elarab
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:7
  9. Lungfish are the most closely related fish to tetrapods. The olfactory organ of lungfish contains lamellae and abundant recesses at the base of lamellae. Based on the ultrastructural and histochemical characte...

    Authors: Shoko Nakamuta, Yoshio Yamamoto, Masao Miyazaki, Atsuhiro Sakuma, Masato Nikaido and Nobuaki Nakamuta
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:6
  10. Metazoans have several mechanisms of internal defense for their survival. The internal defense system evolved alongside the organisms. Annelidae have circulating coelomocytes that perform functions comparable ...

    Authors: Alessio Alesci, Gioele Capillo, Angelo Fumia, Marco Albano, Emmanuele Messina, Nunziacarla Spanò, Simona Pergolizzi and Eugenia Rita Lauriano
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:5
  11. Avian wings as organs for aerial locomotion are furnished with a highly specialized musculoskeletal system compared with the forelimbs of other tetrapod vertebrates. Among the specializations, the propatagium,...

    Authors: Yurika Uno and Tatsuya Hirasawa
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:4
  12. Reproductive biology is an important topic that is well explored in many vertebrates, but information about frogs’ reproductive mechanisms could be improved. Therefore, this review aims to provide organized an...

    Authors: Maribel Méndez-Tepepa, Cuauhtémoc Morales-Cruz, Edelmira García-Nieto and Arely Anaya-Hernández
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:3
  13. Amphibians shape their limbs by differential outgrowth of digits and interdigital regions. In contrast, amniotes employ cell death, an additional developmental system, to determine the final shape of limbs. Pr...

    Authors: Satomi F. Ono, Ingrid Rosenburg Cordeiro, Osamu Kishida, Haruki Ochi and Mikiko Tanaka
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:2
  14. The liver of fish is considered an ideal model for studying the collaboration between environmental agents and the health state of the fish, where it gives good indications about aquatic ecosystem status. Ther...

    Authors: Marwa M. Hussein, Ramy K. A. Sayed and Doaa M. Mokhtar
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2023 9:1
  15. The evolution of automixis – i.e., meiotic parthenogenesis – requires several features, including ploidy restoration after meiosis and maintenance of fertility. Characterizing the relative contribution of nove...

    Authors: Giobbe Forni, Alexander S. Mikheyev, Andrea Luchetti and Barbara Mantovani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:14
  16. The inner ear morphology and size are linked to hearing and balance ability. The goal of this study was to determine the morphology and morphometrics of the dromedary camel's inner ear and how it influences he...

    Authors: Safwat Ali, Abdelraheem Esmat, Atef Erasha, Masahiro Yasuda and Mohamed Alsafy
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:12
  17. The medaka (Oryzias latipes) egg envelope (chorion) is composed of three major glycoproteins, Zona Interna (ZI)-1, -2, and -3, that originate in the spawning female liver as the precursor proteins Choriogenin (Ch...

    Authors: Devun S. Birk, Shinji Onose, Masato Kinoshita and Kenji Murata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:11
  18. Generally, successful testis transplantation has been considered to require immune suppression in the recipient to avoid rejection of the transplanted tissue. In the present study, we demonstrate in medaka tha...

    Authors: Daichi Kayo, Shinji Kanda and Kataaki Okubo
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:10
  19. The current distributions of organisms have been shaped by both current and past geographical barriers. However, it remains unclear how past geographical factors—currently cryptic on the sea floor—affected the...

    Authors: Jun J. Sato and Kouki Yasuda
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:9
  20. Photoperiodic responses are observed in many organisms living in the temperate zones. The circadian clock is involved in photoperiodic time measurement; however, the underlying molecular mechanism for detectio...

    Authors: Marika Nakagawa, Keiko Okano, Yuya Saratani, Yosuke Shoji and Toshiyuki Okano
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:8
  21. Venom production has evolved independently many times in the animal kingdom, although it is rare among mammals. Venomous shrews produce toxins in their salivary glands and use their venoms to hunt and store pr...

    Authors: Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak and Leszek Rychlik
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:7
  22. Urodele amphibians, Pleurodeles waltl and Ambystoma mexicanum, have organ-level regeneration capability, such as limb regeneration. Multipotent cells are induced by an endogenous mechanism in amphibian limb regen...

    Authors: Akira Satoh, Rena Kashimoto, Ayaka Ohashi, Saya Furukawa, Sakiya Yamamoto, Takeshi Inoue, Toshinori Hayashi and Kiyokazu Agata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:6
  23. Fish possess one olfactory organ called the olfactory epithelium (OE), by which various chemical substances are detected. On the other hand, tetrapods possess two independent olfactory organs called the main o...

    Authors: Atsuhiro Sakuma, Zicong Zhang, Eri Suzuki, Tatsuki Nagasawa and Masato Nikaido
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:5
  24. For corals, metamorphosis from planktonic larvae to sedentary polyps is an important life event, as it determines the environment in which they live for a lifetime. Although previous studies on the reef-buildi...

    Authors: Yuu Ishii, Masayuki Hatta, Ryusaku Deguchi, Masakado Kawata and Shinichiro Maruyama
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:4
  25. Recent phylogenomic studies have revealed a robust, new hypothesis of annelid phylogeny. Most surprisingly, a few early branching lineages formed a basal grade, whereas the majority of taxa were categorized as...

    Authors: Günter Purschke, Stepan Vodopyanov, Anjilie Baller, Tim von Palubitzki, Thomas Bartolomaeus and Patrick Beckers
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:3
  26. Social insect colonies constantly produce dead insects, which cause sanitary problems and potentially foster deadly pathogens and parasites. Hence, many social insects have evolved a variety of hygienic behavi...

    Authors: Harunobu Shibao, Mayako Kutsukake, Shigeru Matsuyama and Takema Fukatsu
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:2
  27. Egg envelopes (chorions) in medaka, Oryzias latipes, are composed of three major glycoproteins: ZI-1, − 2, and − 3. These gene-encoded chorion glycoproteins are expressed in the liver and/or ovarian oocytes of se...

    Authors: Kenji Murata and Masato Kinoshita
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2022 8:1
  28. The left-sided position of the mouth in amphioxus larvae has fascinated researchers for a long time. Despite the fundamental importance of mouth development in the amphioxus, the molecular regulation of its de...

    Authors: Guangwei Hu, Guang Li and Yiquan Wang
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:16
  29. Although paedomorphosis is widespread across salamander families, only two species have ever been documented to exhibit paedomorphosis in Hynobiidae. One of these two exceptional species is Hynobius retardatus in...

    Authors: Hisanori Okamiya, Ryohei Sugime, Chiharu Furusawa, Yoshihiro Inoue and Osamu Kishida
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:14
  30. The Oweniidae are marine annelids with many unusual features of organ system, development, morphology, and ultrastructure. Together with magelonids, oweniids have been placed within the Palaeoannelida, a siste...

    Authors: Elena Temereva, Nadezhda Rimskaya-Korsakova and Vyacheslav Dyachuk
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:15
  31. There are two predominant sources of taxonomically useful morphological variability in the diverse tardigrade family Echiniscidae: the internal structure and surface sculpture of the cuticular plates covering ...

    Authors: Piotr Gąsiorek, Katarzyna Vončina, Diane R. Nelson and Łukasz Michalczyk
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:13
  32. Symmetry in the arrangement of body parts is a distinctive phylogenetic feature of animals. Cnidarians show both bilateral and radial symmetries in their internal organs, such as gastric pouches and muscles. H...

    Authors: Safiye E. Sarper, Tamami Hirai, Take Matsuyama, Shigeru Kuratani and Koichi Fujimoto
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:12
  33. Protein-based materials are considered versatile biomaterials, and their biodegradability is an advantage for sustainable development. Bagworm produces strong silk for use in unique situations throughout its l...

    Authors: Nobuaki Kono, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Ayaka Tateishi, Keiji Numata and Kazuharu Arakawa
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:11
  34. The taxonomy of many groups of meiofauna is challenging due to their low number of diagnostic morphological characters and their small body size. Therefore, with the advent of molecular techniques that provide...

    Authors: Daniel Stec, Matteo Vecchi, Magdalena Dudziak, Paul J. Bartels, Sara Calhim and Łukasz Michalczyk
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:9
  35. Insect eggshells must meet various demands of developing embryos. These demands sometimes conflict with each other; therefore, there are tradeoffs between eggshell properties, such as robustness and permeabili...

    Authors: Minoru Moriyama, Kouji Yasuyama and Hideharu Numata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:8
  36. Recent years have brought undeniable progress in tardigrade taxonomy, and speciose complexes were detected in a number of phylogenetic lineages. The family Echiniscidae is one such lineage; it is one of the mo...

    Authors: Piotr Gąsiorek, Katarzyna Vončina, Joanna Ciosek, Mariana Veloso, Paulo Fontoura and Łukasz Michalczyk
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:6
  37. Despite the growing number of studies describing digit ratio patterns in tetrapods, knowledge concerning certain basic issues is still scarce. In lower vertebrates such as tailless amphibians (Anura), the numb...

    Authors: Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Jan M. Kaczmarek, Łukasz Jankowiak, Krzysztof Kolenda and Piotr Tryjanowski
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:5
  38. Many animals switch between asexual and sexual reproduction in nature. We previously established a system for the sexual induction of planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis by feeding asexual planarians with minced sexual...

    Authors: Takanobu Maezawa, Masaki Ishikawa, Kiyono Sekii, Go Nagamatsu, Ryohei Furukawa and Kazuya Kobayashi
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:4
  39. Vertebrate extraocular muscles (EOMs) function in eye movements. The EOMs of modern jawed vertebrates consist primarily of four recti and two oblique muscles innervated by three cranial nerves. The development...

    Authors: Shunya Kuroda, Noritaka Adachi, Rie Kusakabe and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:3
  40. Quaternary environmental changes fundamentally influenced the genetic diversity of temperate-zone terrestrial animals, including those in the Japanese Archipelago. The genetic diversity of present-day populati...

    Authors: Azusa Nakamoto, Masashi Harada, Reiko Mitsuhashi, Kimiyuki Tsuchiya, Alexey P. Kryukov, Akio Shinohara and Hitoshi Suzuki
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:2
  41. In the pineal organ of zebrafish larvae, the bistable opsin parapinopsin alone generates color opponency between UV and visible light. Our previous study suggested that dark inactivation of the parapinopsin ph...

    Authors: Baoguo Shen, Seiji Wada, Haruka Nishioka, Takashi Nagata, Emi Kawano-Yamashita, Mitsumasa Koyanagi and Akihisa Terakita
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:1
  42. Appetite or feeding motivation relies significantly on food odors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, feeding motivation for sucrose is decreased by the odor of d-limonene but increased by the odor of 1-octen-3-ol od...

    Authors: Toru Maeda, Tomoyosi Nisimura, Shunnya Habe, Tatsuya Uebi and Mamiko Ozaki
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:16
  43. Insect outbreaks often occur in the absence of natural enemies and in the presence of excess suitable host materials. Outbreaks of gypsy moths are especially problematic in remote areas located in high-latitud...

    Authors: Masahiro Komatsu, Keigo Kurihara, Susumu Saito, Mana Domae, Naoki Masuya, Yuta Shimura, Shunichiro Kajiyama, Yuna Kanda, Kouki Sugizaki, Kouji Ebina, Osamu Ikeda, Yudai Moriwaki, Naohiro Atsumi, Katsuyoshi Abe, Tadashi Maruyama, Satoshi Watanabe…
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:15
  44. The jaw apparatus in several annelid families represents a powerful tool for systematic approaches and evolutionary investigations. Nevertheless, for several taxa, this character complex has scarcely been inve...

    Authors: Alexander Tzetlin, Nataliya Budaeva, Elena Vortsepneva and Conrad Helm
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:14

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