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  1. Recent years have brought undeniable progress in tardigrade taxonomy, and speciose complexes were detected in a number of phylogenetic lineages. The family Echiniscidae is one such lineage; it is one of the mo...

    Authors: Piotr Gąsiorek, Katarzyna Vončina, Joanna Ciosek, Mariana Veloso, Paulo Fontoura and Łukasz Michalczyk
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:6
  2. Despite the growing number of studies describing digit ratio patterns in tetrapods, knowledge concerning certain basic issues is still scarce. In lower vertebrates such as tailless amphibians (Anura), the numb...

    Authors: Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Jan M. Kaczmarek, Łukasz Jankowiak, Krzysztof Kolenda and Piotr Tryjanowski
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:5
  3. Many animals switch between asexual and sexual reproduction in nature. We previously established a system for the sexual induction of planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis by feeding asexual planarians with minced sexual...

    Authors: Takanobu Maezawa, Masaki Ishikawa, Kiyono Sekii, Go Nagamatsu, Ryohei Furukawa and Kazuya Kobayashi
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:4
  4. Vertebrate extraocular muscles (EOMs) function in eye movements. The EOMs of modern jawed vertebrates consist primarily of four recti and two oblique muscles innervated by three cranial nerves. The development...

    Authors: Shunya Kuroda, Noritaka Adachi, Rie Kusakabe and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:3
  5. Quaternary environmental changes fundamentally influenced the genetic diversity of temperate-zone terrestrial animals, including those in the Japanese Archipelago. The genetic diversity of present-day populati...

    Authors: Azusa Nakamoto, Masashi Harada, Reiko Mitsuhashi, Kimiyuki Tsuchiya, Alexey P. Kryukov, Akio Shinohara and Hitoshi Suzuki
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:2
  6. In the pineal organ of zebrafish larvae, the bistable opsin parapinopsin alone generates color opponency between UV and visible light. Our previous study suggested that dark inactivation of the parapinopsin ph...

    Authors: Baoguo Shen, Seiji Wada, Haruka Nishioka, Takashi Nagata, Emi Kawano-Yamashita, Mitsumasa Koyanagi and Akihisa Terakita
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2021 7:1
  7. Appetite or feeding motivation relies significantly on food odors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, feeding motivation for sucrose is decreased by the odor of d-limonene but increased by the odor of 1-octen-3-ol od...

    Authors: Toru Maeda, Tomoyosi Nisimura, Shunnya Habe, Tatsuya Uebi and Mamiko Ozaki
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:16
  8. Insect outbreaks often occur in the absence of natural enemies and in the presence of excess suitable host materials. Outbreaks of gypsy moths are especially problematic in remote areas located in high-latitud...

    Authors: Masahiro Komatsu, Keigo Kurihara, Susumu Saito, Mana Domae, Naoki Masuya, Yuta Shimura, Shunichiro Kajiyama, Yuna Kanda, Kouki Sugizaki, Kouji Ebina, Osamu Ikeda, Yudai Moriwaki, Naohiro Atsumi, Katsuyoshi Abe, Tadashi Maruyama, Satoshi Watanabe…
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:15
  9. The jaw apparatus in several annelid families represents a powerful tool for systematic approaches and evolutionary investigations. Nevertheless, for several taxa, this character complex has scarcely been inve...

    Authors: Alexander Tzetlin, Nataliya Budaeva, Elena Vortsepneva and Conrad Helm
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:14
  10. The circadian clock generates rhythms of approximately 24 h through periodic expression of the clock genes. In insects, the major clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim) are rhythmically expressed upon their ...

    Authors: Yasuaki Tomiyama, Tsugumichi Shinohara, Mirai Matsuka, Tetsuya Bando, Taro Mito and Kenji Tomioka
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:12
  11. Stephanella hina is a little studied freshwater bryozoan belonging to Phylactolaemata. It is currently the only representative of the family Stephanellidae, which in most reconstructions is early branching, somet...

    Authors: Thomas F. Schwaha and Masato Hirose
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:11
  12. Fluorescence and luminescence are widespread optical phenomena exhibited by organisms living in terrestrial and aquatic environments. While many underlying mechanistic features have been identified and charact...

    Authors: Marie-Lyne Macel, Filomena Ristoratore, Annamaria Locascio, Antonietta Spagnuolo, Paolo Sordino and Salvatore D’Aniello
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:9
  13. Camels have evolved various resistance characteristics adaptive to their desert habitats. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate stress-induced alternative splicing events as w...

    Authors: Dong Zhang, Jing Pan, Huanmin Zhou and Yu Cao
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:8
  14. Owing to their incomplete adaptation to the terrestrial environment, amphibians possess complex cutaneous glandular systems. The skin glands not only regulate water loss and respiratory gas and salt exchange, ...

    Authors: Yuzhou Gong, Yiwei Zeng, Puyang Zheng, Xun Liao and Feng Xie
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:7
  15. We examine evidence for natural selection resulting in Apis mellifera becoming tolerant or resistant to Varroa mites in different bee populations. We discuss traits implicated in Varroa resistance and how they ca...

    Authors: Jacques J. M. van Alphen and Bart Jan Fernhout
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:6

    The Correction to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2020 6:10

  16. Little is known about the life history of oarfish of the genus Regalecus, although it is a famous deep-sea fish and an apparent origin of sea serpent legends. We successfully performed artificial insemination usi...

    Authors: Shin-ichiro Oka, Masaru Nakamura, Ryo Nozu and Kei Miyamoto
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:4
  17. Some insects possess complex three-dimensional (3D) structures that develop under the old cuticle prior to the last imaginal molt. Adult treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracidae) have one ...

    Authors: Haruhiko Adachi, Keisuke Matsuda, Kenji Nishida, Paul Hanson, Shigeru Kondo and Hiroki Gotoh
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:3
  18. Richtersius coronifer, the nominal species for the family Richtersiidae and a popular laboratory model, exemplifies a common problem in modern tardigrade taxonomy. Despite undeniable progress in the field, many o...

    Authors: Daniel Stec, Łukasz Krzywański, Kazuharu Arakawa and Łukasz Michalczyk
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:2
  19. Based on 20,000 records representing c. 11,000 individuals from an 8-year capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study, we tested and confirmed a new case of invariant clutch size (ICS) in a sexually dichromatic lacertid l...

    Authors: Jhan-Wei Lin, Ying-Rong Chen, Tsui-Wen Li, Pei-Jen L. Shaner and Si-Min Lin
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2020 6:1
  20. Despite numerous approaches to the resolution of euarthropod phylogeny, mainly based on modern sequence information and traditional external morphology, the resulting hypotheses are often contradictory and lea...

    Authors: Maite Maurer, Janina Hladik, Thomas M. Iliffe and Torben Stemme
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:36
  21. Absorption spectra of opsin-based pigments are tuned from the UV to the red regions by interactions of the chromophore with surrounding amino acid residues. Both vertebrates and invertebrates possess long-wave...

    Authors: Tomoka Saito, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Tomohiro Sugihara, Takashi Nagata, Kentaro Arikawa and Akihisa Terakita
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:35
  22. Self-incompatibility, fusion/non-fusion reactions, and contact reactions (CRs) have all been identified as allorecognition phenomena in ascidians. CR is a reaction characteristic of the hemocytes of Halocynthia r...

    Authors: Masaki Ema, Taizo Okada, Miki Takahashi, Masato Uchiyama, Hideo Kubo, Hideaki Moriyama, Hitoshi Miyakawa and Midori Matsumoto
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:34
  23. The relationship between development and evolution has been a central theme in evolutionary developmental biology. Across the vertebrates, the most highly conserved gene expression profiles are found at mid-em...

    Authors: Masahiro Uesaka, Shigeru Kuratani, Hiroyuki Takeda and Naoki Irie
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:33
  24. Metazoans have evolved a great variety of life histories in response to environmental conditions. A unique example is encountered in dicyemid mesozoans. In addition to a highly simplified adult body comprising...

    Authors: Tsai-Ming Lu, Hidetaka Furuya and Noriyuki Satoh
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:32
  25. Even subtle changes in environmental factors can exert behavioral effects on creatures, which may alter interspecific interactions and eventually affect the ecosystem. However, how changes in environmental fac...

    Authors: Masato Mori, Maria Narahashi, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Miyuki Ishida, Nobuyoshi Kumagai, Yuki Sato, Reza Bagherzadeh, Kiyokazu Agata and Takeshi Inoue
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:31
  26. Teleost paired fins are composed of two endoskeletal domains, proximal and distal radials, and an exoskeletal domain, the fin ray. The zebrafish pectoral fin displays elaborately patterned radials along the an...

    Authors: Hiroki Hamada, Toshiaki Uemoto, Yoshitaka Tanaka, Yuki Honda, Keiichi Kitajima, Tetsuya Umeda, Atsushi Kawakami, Minori Shinya, Koichi Kawakami, Koji Tamura and Gembu Abe
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:30
  27. In cephalochordates (amphioxus), the notochord runs along the dorsal to the anterior tip of the body. In contrast, the vertebrate head is formed anterior to the notochord, as a result of head organizer formati...

    Authors: Yuuri Yasuoka, Yukiko Tando, Kaoru Kubokawa and Masanori Taira
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:27
  28. Arachnids possess highly specialized and unorthodox sense organs, such as the unique pectines of Scorpiones and the malleoli of Solifugae. While the external morphology, numbers, and shapes of sensory organs a...

    Authors: Andy Sombke, Anja E. Klann, Elisabeth Lipke and Harald Wolf
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:26
  29. CatSper is a sperm-specific calcium ion (Ca2+) channel, which regulates sperm flagellar beating by tuning cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations. Although this Ca2+ channel is essential for mammalian fertilization, rece...

    Authors: Francisco Romero and Takuya Nishigaki
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:25
  30. Sea cucumbers (a class of echinoderms) exhibit a high capacity for regeneration, such that, following ejection of inner organs in a process called evisceration, the lost organs regenerate. There are two ways b...

    Authors: Akari Okada and Mariko Kondo
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:21
  31. Calmanostraca is a group of branchiopod eucrustaceans, with Triops cancriformis and Lepidurus apus as most prominent representatives. Both are regularly addressed with the inaccurate tag “living fossil”, suggesti...

    Authors: Philipp Wagner, Joachim T. Haug and Carolin Haug
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:20
  32. Catfish (Siluriformes) are characterized by unique morphologies, including enlarged jaws with movable barbels and taste buds covering the entire body surface. Evolution of these characteristics was a crucial s...

    Authors: Tatsuya Itoyama, Makiko Fukui, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Saki Kaneko, Fumiaki Sugahara and Yasunori Murakami
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:19
  33. Radiodonta, large Palaeozoic nektonic predators, occupy a pivotal evolutionary position as stem-euarthropods and filled important ecological niches in early animal ecosystems. Analyses of the anatomy and phylo...

    Authors: Stephen Pates, Allison C. Daley and Nicholas J. Butterfield
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:18
  34. The rock dove (or common pigeon), Columba livia, is an important model organism in biological studies, including research focusing on head muscle anatomy, feeding kinematics, and cranial kinesis. However, no inte...

    Authors: Marc E. H. Jones, David J. Button, Paul M. Barrett and Laura B. Porro
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:17
  35. Diverse insects are intimately associated with microbial symbionts, which play a variety of biological roles in their adaptation to and survival in the natural environment. Such insects often possess specializ...

    Authors: Sayumi Oishi, Minoru Moriyama, Ryuichi Koga and Takema Fukatsu
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:16
  36. The crustacean class Branchiopoda includes fairy shrimps, clam shrimps, tadpole shrimps, and water fleas. Branchiopods, which are well known for their great variety of reproductive strategies, date back to the...

    Authors: Andrea Luchetti, Giobbe Forni, Alyza M. Skaist, Sarah J. Wheelan and Barbara Mantovani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:15
  37. Tardigrades (water bears) are microscopic invertebrates of which the anatomy has been well studied using traditional techniques, but a comprehensive three-dimensional reconstruction has never been performed. I...

    Authors: Vladimir Gross, Mark Müller, Lorenz Hehn, Simone Ferstl, Sebastian Allner, Martin Dierolf, Klaus Achterhold, Georg Mayer and Franz Pfeiffer
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:14
  38. End-Cretaceous niche-filling by benthic Mesozoic survivors resulted in a prominent increase of durophagous fish families, resulting in the appearance of the earliest representatives of several extant fish line...

    Authors: Giuseppe Marramà, Giorgio Carnevale, Gavin J. P. Naylor and Jürgen Kriwet
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:13
  39. Branched structures are found in many natural settings, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their formation in animal development have extensively studied in recent years. Despite their import...

    Authors: Akiyo Fujiki, Shiting Hou, Ayaki Nakamoto and Gaku Kumano
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:12
  40. The dentition in extant holocephalans (Chondrichthyes) comprises three pairs of continuously growing dental plates, rather than the separate teeth characterizing elasmobranchs. We investigated how different ty...

    Authors: Moya Meredith Smith, Charlie Underwood, Tomasz Goral, Christopher Healy and Zerina Johanson
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:11

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