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  1. Research article

    On the sighted ancestry of blindness – exceptionally preserved eyes of Mesozoic polychelidan lobsters

    Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. Fossil species of Polychelida, howeve...

    Denis Audo, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Sylvain Charbonnier, Günter Schweigert, Carsten H. G. Müller and Steffen Harzsch

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:13

    Published on: 16 July 2016

  2. Research article

    Comparative morphology and development of extra-ocular muscles in the lamprey and gnathostomes reveal the ancestral state and developmental patterns of the vertebrate head

    The ancestral configuration of the vertebrate head has long been an intriguing topic in comparative morphology and evolutionary biology. One peculiar component of the vertebrate head is the presence of extra-o...

    Daichi G. Suzuki, Yuma Fukumoto, Miho Yoshimura, Yuji Yamazaki, Jun Kosaka, Shigeru Kuratani and Hiroshi Wada

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:10

    Published on: 14 April 2016

  3. Research article

    Mechanisms of wound closure following acute arm injury in Octopus vulgaris

    Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the i...

    Tanya J. Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito and Paul L.R. Andrews

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:8

    Published on: 29 March 2016

  4. Research article

    Mode of reduction in the number of pharyngeal segments within the sarcopterygians

    Pharyngeal segmentation is a defining feature of vertebrate embryos and is apparent as a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. The ancestral condition for ...

    Victoria Shone, Silvan Oulion, Didier Casane, Patrick Laurenti and Anthony Graham

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:6

    Published on: 21 March 2016

  5. Research article

    Enhancer of zeste plays an important role in photoperiodic modulation of locomotor rhythm in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Insects show daily behavioral rhythms controlled by an endogenous oscillator, the circadian clock. The rhythm synchronizes to daily light–dark cycles (LD) and changes waveform in association with seasonal chan...

    Yoshimasa Hamada, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Hideyo Ohuchi and Kenji Tomioka

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:5

    Published on: 19 March 2016

  6. Research article

    Distal-less induces elemental color patterns in Junonia butterfly wings

    The border ocellus, or eyespot, is a conspicuous color pattern element in butterfly wings. For two decades, it has been hypothesized that transcription factors such as Distal-less (Dll) are responsible for eye...

    Bidur Dhungel, Yoshikazu Ohno, Rie Matayoshi, Mayo Iwasaki, Wataru Taira, Kiran Adhikari, Raj Gurung and Joji M. Otaki

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:4

    Published on: 1 March 2016

  7. Research article

    Bivalve-specific gene expansion in the pearl oyster genome: implications of adaptation to a sessile lifestyle

    Bivalve molluscs have flourished in marine environments, and many species constitute important aquatic resources. Recently, whole genome sequences from two bivalves, the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and the Pac...

    Takeshi Takeuchi, Ryo Koyanagi, Fuki Gyoja, Miyuki Kanda, Kanako Hisata, Manabu Fujie, Hiroki Goto, Shinichi Yamasaki, Kiyohito Nagai, Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Kazuyoshi Endo, Hirotoshi Endo, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Shuichi Asakawa…

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:3

    Published on: 18 February 2016

  8. Research article

    Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion

    Deuterostomes (animals with ‘secondary mouths’) are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuteros...

    Takao Kaji, James D. Reimer, Arseniy R. Morov, Shigeru Kuratani and Kinya Yasui

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:2

    Published on: 6 February 2016

  9. Research article

    Suppressive effects of dRYamides on feeding behavior of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Recently, dRYamides-1 and -2 have been identified as ligands of the neuropeptide Y-like receptor CG5811 in Drosophila melanogaster. It has also been reported in brief that injection of dRYamide-1suppresses the ea...

    Toru Maeda, Yuki Nakamura, Hajime Shiotani, Masaru K. Hojo, Taishi Yoshii, Takanori Ida, Takahiro Sato, Morikatsu Yoshida, Mikiya Miyazato, Masayasu Kojima and Mamiko Ozaki

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:35

    Published on: 8 December 2015

  10. Research article

    A model for germ cell development in a fully segmented worm

    Polychaetes are segmented marine worms with body segments separated by a complete or incomplete septum. In most polychaetes the whole body cavity is filled with gametes during the breeding season. Platynereis dum...

    Mercedes Maceren-Pates, Yoshihisa Kurita, Gaudioso Pates Jr. and Michiyasu Yoshikuni

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:34

    Published on: 7 December 2015

  11. Research article

    On the origin of vertebrate somites

    Somites, blocks of mesoderm tissue located on either side of the neural tube in the developing vertebrate embryo, are derived from mesenchymal cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and are a defining characte...

    Takayuki Onai, Toshihiro Aramaki, Hidehiko Inomata, Tamami Hirai and Shigeru Kuratani

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:33

    Published on: 26 November 2015

  12. Research article

    Ancestral mesodermal reorganization and evolution of the vertebrate head

    The vertebrate head is characterized by unsegmented head mesoderm the evolutionary origin of which remains enigmatic. The head mesoderm is derived from the rostral part of the dorsal mesoderm, which is regiona...

    Takayuki Onai, Toshihiro Aramaki, Hidehiko Inomata, Tamami Hirai and Shigeru Kuratani

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:29

    Published on: 9 November 2015

  13. Research article

    Involvement of Slit–Robo signaling in the development of the posterior commissure and concomitant swimming behavior in Xenopus laevis

    During vertebrate development, the central nervous system (CNS) has stereotyped neuronal tracts (scaffolds) that include longitudinal and commissural axonal bundles, such as the medial longitudinal fascicle or...

    Yasuhiko Tosa, Kiyohito Tsukano, Tatsuya Itoyama, Mai Fukagawa, Yukako Nii, Ryota Ishikawa, Ken-ichi T. Suzuki, Makiko Fukui, Masahumi Kawaguchi and Yasunori Murakami

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:28

    Published on: 5 October 2015

  14. Research article

    Opposite-directional sex change in functional female protandrous anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii: effect of aromatase inhibitor on the ovarian tissue

    The anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii, is a protandrous hermaphrodite. Under appropriate social conditions, male fish can become female. Previous studies indicated that estrogens are important regulators of sex cha...

    Masaru Nakamura, Saori Miura, Ryo Nozu and Yasuhisa Kobayashi

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:30

    Published on: 29 September 2015

  15. Research article

    Evidence for a cordal, not ganglionic, pattern of cephalopod brain neurogenesis

    From the large-brained cephalopods to the acephalic bivalves, molluscs show a vast range of nervous system centralization patterns. Despite this diversity, molluscan nervous systems, broadly considered, are or...

    Shuichi Shigeno, Rahul Parnaik, Caroline B. Albertin and Clifton W. Ragsdale

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:26

    Published on: 7 September 2015

  16. Research article

    Basic reproductive biology of daggertooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus: A possible model for oogenesis in Anguilliformes

    Eels are animals commonly used in zoological research, as these species have a unique catadromous life history and belong to a phylogenetically ancient group of Teleostei. However, eel reproduction is difficul...

    Yasuhisa Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Mototani, Fumiyasu Murayama and Tatuya Sakamoto

    Zoological Letters 2015 1:25

    Published on: 3 September 2015

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