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  1. Content type: Research article

    Plant-dwelling beetles overcome challenging attachment hurdles by means of ellaborated, tarsal attachment devices, which are frequently equipped with hairy adhesive pads. While the tarsal functional morphology...

    Authors: Dagmar Voigt, Takuma Takanashi, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Kenichi Yazaki, Katsushi Kuroda, Remi Tsubaki and Naoe Hosoda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:16

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  2. Content type: Research article

    We have found that the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana) differs in laboratory strains originating from different regions of Japan. We have investigated ...

    Authors: Aya Satoh, Finlay J. Stewart, Hisaharu Koshitaka, Hiroshi D. Akashi, Primož Pirih, Yasushi Sato and Kentaro Arikawa

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:14

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a stored-product pest beetle. Early histological studies dating back to 1930s have reported that R. dominica and other bostrichid species ...

    Authors: Genta Okude, Ryuichi Koga, Toshinari Hayashi, Yudai Nishide, Xian-Ying Meng, Naruo Nikoh, Akihiro Miyanoshita and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:13

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physi...

    Authors: Michael Gerth, Ronny Wolf, Christoph Bleidorn, Julia Richter, Rebekka Sontowski, Jasmin Unrein, Martin Schlegel and Axel Gruppe

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:12

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by ph...

    Authors: Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto and Toshitaka Ikeuchi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:11

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The CRISPR/Cas system is a powerful genome editing tool that enables targeted genome modifications in various organisms. In medaka (Oryzias latipes), targeted mutagenesis with small insertions and deletions using...

    Authors: Yu Murakami, Satoshi Ansai, Akari Yonemura and Masato Kinoshita

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:10

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is us...

    Authors: Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Daisuke Sakai, Jun Nishikawa and Euichi Hirose

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:7

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circ...

    Authors: Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q. Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura and Kenji Tomioka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:5

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The T-box family transcription-factor gene, Brachyury, has two expression domains with discrete functions during animal embryogenesis. The primary domain, associated with the blastopore, is shared by most metazoa...

    Authors: Jun Inoue, Yuuri Yasuoka, Hiroki Takahashi and Noriyuki Satoh

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:4

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, ...

    Authors: Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami and Hiroshi Nishino

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:3

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Two essential processes, oocyte maturation and ovulation, are independently induced, but proceed cooperatively as the final step in oogenesis before oocytes become fertilizable. Although these two processes ar...

    Authors: Wanlada Klangnurak and Toshinobu Tokumoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:2

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  12. Content type: Review

    An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelph...

    Authors: Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra and Analía M. Forasiepi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:1

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Phylactolaemata is the earliest branch and the sister group to all extant bryozoans. It is considered a small relict group that, perhaps due to the invasion of freshwater, has retained ancestral features. Reco...

    Authors: Thomas Schwaha, Masato Hirose and Andreas Wanninger

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:25

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Diverse animals are intimately associated with microbial symbionts. How such host–symbiont associations have evolved is a fundamental biological issue. Recent studies have revealed a variety of evolutionary re...

    Authors: Takahiro Hosokawa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:24

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of ...

    Authors: Jonas O. Wolff, Thomas Schwaha, Michael Seiter and Stanislav N. Gorb

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:23

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  16. Content type: Research article

    This is the first report of two-headed (bicephaly) lamprey twins. Although lampreys sit at a crucial phylogenetic position, there are only a few reports on their teratology and developmental abnormalities.

    Authors: Daichi G. Suzuki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:22

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Diuronotus is one of the most recently described genera of Paucitubulatina, one of the three major clades in Gastrotricha. Its morphology suggests that Diuronotus is an early branch of...

    Authors: Nicolas Bekkouche and Katrine Worsaae

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:21

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The taxonomic position of the Middle Devonian fish-like animal Palaeospondylus has remained enigmatic, due mainly to the inability to identify homologous cranial elements. This animal has been classified into nea...

    Authors: Tatsuya Hirasawa, Yasuhiro Oisi and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:20

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The discovery of differentially organized sex chromosome systems suggests that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of homologous chromosomes. Whereas karyotypes are highly conserved in alethinoph...

    Authors: Kazumi Matsubara, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda and Yoshinori Kumazawa

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:19

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Vibrational senses are vital for plant-dwelling animals because vibrations transmitted through plants allow them to detect approaching predators or conspecifics. Little is known, however, about how coleopteran...

    Authors: Takuma Takanashi, Midori Fukaya, Kiyoshi Nakamuta, Niels Skals and Hiroshi Nishino

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:18

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  21. Content type: Research article

    It has been hypothesised that domestication altered the sequence of dental, skeletal, and sexual maturity of dogs when compared to their wolf ancestor. To test this we investigated a comprehensive sample of do...

    Authors: Madeleine Geiger, Karine Gendron, Florian Willmitzer and Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:16

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Multiple Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit isoforms express differentially in response to salinity transfer in teleosts but we observed that the isoform nomenclature is inconsistent with the phylogenetic relations...

    Authors: Marty Kwok-Shing Wong, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki and Yoshio Takei

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:15

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  23. Content type: Review

    In the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), it has long been thought that the mushroom bodies, a higher-order center in the insect brain, comprise three distinct subtypes of intrinsic neurons called Kenyon cells. In cla...

    Authors: Kumi Kaneko, Shota Suenami and Takeo Kubo

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:14

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. Fossil species of Polychelida, howeve...

    Authors: Denis Audo, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug, Sylvain Charbonnier, Günter Schweigert, Carsten H. G. Müller and Steffen Harzsch

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:13

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The evolution of invasive placentation in the stem lineage of eutherian mammals entailed resolution of the incompatibility between a semi-allogenic fetus and the maternal immune system. The haemochorial placen...

    Authors: Arun Rajendra Chavan and Günter P. Wagner

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:11

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  26. Content type: Research article

    The ancestral configuration of the vertebrate head has long been an intriguing topic in comparative morphology and evolutionary biology. One peculiar component of the vertebrate head is the presence of extra-o...

    Authors: Daichi G. Suzuki, Yuma Fukumoto, Miho Yoshimura, Yuji Yamazaki, Jun Kosaka, Shigeru Kuratani and Hiroshi Wada

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:10

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best document...

    Authors: Federico Fanti, Daniela Minelli, Gabriele Larocca Conte and Tetsuto Miyashita

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:9

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the i...

    Authors: Tanya J. Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito and Paul L.R. Andrews

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:8

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  29. Content type: Review

    Cooperative breeding is a widespread and intense form of cooperation, in which individuals help raise offspring that are not their own. This behaviour is particularly well studied in birds, using both long-ter...

    Authors: Michael Griesser and Toshitaka N. Suzuki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:7

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Pharyngeal segmentation is a defining feature of vertebrate embryos and is apparent as a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. The ancestral condition for ...

    Authors: Victoria Shone, Silvan Oulion, Didier Casane, Patrick Laurenti and Anthony Graham

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:6

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Insects show daily behavioral rhythms controlled by an endogenous oscillator, the circadian clock. The rhythm synchronizes to daily light–dark cycles (LD) and changes waveform in association with seasonal chan...

    Authors: Yoshimasa Hamada, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Hideyo Ohuchi and Kenji Tomioka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:5

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The border ocellus, or eyespot, is a conspicuous color pattern element in butterfly wings. For two decades, it has been hypothesized that transcription factors such as Distal-less (Dll) are responsible for eye...

    Authors: Bidur Dhungel, Yoshikazu Ohno, Rie Matayoshi, Mayo Iwasaki, Wataru Taira, Kiran Adhikari, Raj Gurung and Joji M. Otaki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:4

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Bivalve molluscs have flourished in marine environments, and many species constitute important aquatic resources. Recently, whole genome sequences from two bivalves, the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and the Pac...

    Authors: Takeshi Takeuchi, Ryo Koyanagi, Fuki Gyoja, Miyuki Kanda, Kanako Hisata, Manabu Fujie, Hiroki Goto, Shinichi Yamasaki, Kiyohito Nagai, Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Kazuyoshi Endo, Hirotoshi Endo, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Shuichi Asakawa…

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:3

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Deuterostomes (animals with ‘secondary mouths’) are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuteros...

    Authors: Takao Kaji, James D. Reimer, Arseniy R. Morov, Shigeru Kuratani and Kinya Yasui

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:2

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Dynamic apical microvilli of a single cell, called the chaetoblast, inside an ectodermal invagination form the template of annelid chaetae. Changes in the pattern of microvilli are frozen in time by release of...

    Authors: Ekin Tilic and Thomas Bartolomaeus

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:1

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Recently, dRYamides-1 and -2 have been identified as ligands of the neuropeptide Y-like receptor CG5811 in Drosophila melanogaster. It has also been reported in brief that injection of dRYamide-1suppresses the ea...

    Authors: Toru Maeda, Yuki Nakamura, Hajime Shiotani, Masaru K. Hojo, Taishi Yoshii, Takanori Ida, Takahiro Sato, Morikatsu Yoshida, Mikiya Miyazato, Masayasu Kojima and Mamiko Ozaki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:35

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Polychaetes are segmented marine worms with body segments separated by a complete or incomplete septum. In most polychaetes the whole body cavity is filled with gametes during the breeding season. Platynereis dum...

    Authors: Mercedes Maceren-Pates, Yoshihisa Kurita, Gaudioso Pates Jr. and Michiyasu Yoshikuni

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:34

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Somites, blocks of mesoderm tissue located on either side of the neural tube in the developing vertebrate embryo, are derived from mesenchymal cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and are a defining characte...

    Authors: Takayuki Onai, Toshihiro Aramaki, Hidehiko Inomata, Tamami Hirai and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:33

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The vertebrate head is characterized by unsegmented head mesoderm the evolutionary origin of which remains enigmatic. The head mesoderm is derived from the rostral part of the dorsal mesoderm, which is regiona...

    Authors: Takayuki Onai, Toshihiro Aramaki, Hidehiko Inomata, Tamami Hirai and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:29

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  40. Content type: Review

    Steroid hormones are one of the major bioactive molecules responsible for the coordinated regulation of biological processes in multicellular organisms. In insects, the principal steroid hormones are ecdystero...

    Authors: Outa Uryu, Tomotsune Ameku and Ryusuke Niwa

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:32

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexual dimorphism during ontogeny, and populations that differ in the magnitudes of sexual dimorphism may accordingly differ in the ontogenetic patterns of their sex ster...

    Authors: Maiko Kawajiri, Katsuhisa Uchida, Hiroaki Chiba, Shunsuke Moriyama and Kazunori Yamahira

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:31

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  42. Content type: Research article

    During vertebrate development, the central nervous system (CNS) has stereotyped neuronal tracts (scaffolds) that include longitudinal and commissural axonal bundles, such as the medial longitudinal fascicle or...

    Authors: Yasuhiko Tosa, Kiyohito Tsukano, Tatsuya Itoyama, Mai Fukagawa, Yukako Nii, Ryota Ishikawa, Ken-ichi T. Suzuki, Makiko Fukui, Masahumi Kawaguchi and Yasunori Murakami

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:28

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Species with fission-fusion social systems tend to exchange individualized contact calls to maintain group cohesion. Signature whistles by bottlenose dolphins are unique compared to the contact calls of other ...

    Authors: Yuka Mishima, Tadamichi Morisaka, Miho Itoh, Ikuo Matsuo, Aiko Sakaguchi and Yoshinori Miyamoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:27

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii, is a protandrous hermaphrodite. Under appropriate social conditions, male fish can become female. Previous studies indicated that estrogens are important regulators of sex cha...

    Authors: Masaru Nakamura, Saori Miura, Ryo Nozu and Yasuhisa Kobayashi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:30

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