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  1. Content type: Research article

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best document...

    Authors: Federico Fanti, Daniela Minelli, Gabriele Larocca Conte and Tetsuto Miyashita

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:9

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Octopoda utilise their arms for a diverse range of functions, including locomotion, hunting, defence, exploration, reproduction, and grooming. However the natural environment contains numerous threats to the i...

    Authors: Tanya J. Shaw, Molly Osborne, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito and Paul L.R. Andrews

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:8

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  3. Content type: Review

    Cooperative breeding is a widespread and intense form of cooperation, in which individuals help raise offspring that are not their own. This behaviour is particularly well studied in birds, using both long-ter...

    Authors: Michael Griesser and Toshitaka N. Suzuki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:7

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Pharyngeal segmentation is a defining feature of vertebrate embryos and is apparent as a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the embryonic head, the pharyngeal arches. The ancestral condition for ...

    Authors: Victoria Shone, Silvan Oulion, Didier Casane, Patrick Laurenti and Anthony Graham

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:6

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Insects show daily behavioral rhythms controlled by an endogenous oscillator, the circadian clock. The rhythm synchronizes to daily light–dark cycles (LD) and changes waveform in association with seasonal chan...

    Authors: Yoshimasa Hamada, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Hideyo Ohuchi and Kenji Tomioka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:5

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The border ocellus, or eyespot, is a conspicuous color pattern element in butterfly wings. For two decades, it has been hypothesized that transcription factors such as Distal-less (Dll) are responsible for eye...

    Authors: Bidur Dhungel, Yoshikazu Ohno, Rie Matayoshi, Mayo Iwasaki, Wataru Taira, Kiran Adhikari, Raj Gurung and Joji M. Otaki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:4

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Bivalve molluscs have flourished in marine environments, and many species constitute important aquatic resources. Recently, whole genome sequences from two bivalves, the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and the Pac...

    Authors: Takeshi Takeuchi, Ryo Koyanagi, Fuki Gyoja, Miyuki Kanda, Kanako Hisata, Manabu Fujie, Hiroki Goto, Shinichi Yamasaki, Kiyohito Nagai, Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Kazuyoshi Endo, Hirotoshi Endo, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Shuichi Asakawa…

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:3

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Deuterostomes (animals with ‘secondary mouths’) are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuteros...

    Authors: Takao Kaji, James D. Reimer, Arseniy R. Morov, Shigeru Kuratani and Kinya Yasui

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:2

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Dynamic apical microvilli of a single cell, called the chaetoblast, inside an ectodermal invagination form the template of annelid chaetae. Changes in the pattern of microvilli are frozen in time by release of...

    Authors: Ekin Tilic and Thomas Bartolomaeus

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2016 2:1

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Recently, dRYamides-1 and -2 have been identified as ligands of the neuropeptide Y-like receptor CG5811 in Drosophila melanogaster. It has also been reported in brief that injection of dRYamide-1suppresses the ea...

    Authors: Toru Maeda, Yuki Nakamura, Hajime Shiotani, Masaru K. Hojo, Taishi Yoshii, Takanori Ida, Takahiro Sato, Morikatsu Yoshida, Mikiya Miyazato, Masayasu Kojima and Mamiko Ozaki

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:35

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Polychaetes are segmented marine worms with body segments separated by a complete or incomplete septum. In most polychaetes the whole body cavity is filled with gametes during the breeding season. Platynereis dum...

    Authors: Mercedes Maceren-Pates, Yoshihisa Kurita, Gaudioso Pates Jr. and Michiyasu Yoshikuni

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:34

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Somites, blocks of mesoderm tissue located on either side of the neural tube in the developing vertebrate embryo, are derived from mesenchymal cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and are a defining characte...

    Authors: Takayuki Onai, Toshihiro Aramaki, Hidehiko Inomata, Tamami Hirai and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:33

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The vertebrate head is characterized by unsegmented head mesoderm the evolutionary origin of which remains enigmatic. The head mesoderm is derived from the rostral part of the dorsal mesoderm, which is regiona...

    Authors: Takayuki Onai, Toshihiro Aramaki, Hidehiko Inomata, Tamami Hirai and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:29

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  14. Content type: Review

    Steroid hormones are one of the major bioactive molecules responsible for the coordinated regulation of biological processes in multicellular organisms. In insects, the principal steroid hormones are ecdystero...

    Authors: Outa Uryu, Tomotsune Ameku and Ryusuke Niwa

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:32

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexual dimorphism during ontogeny, and populations that differ in the magnitudes of sexual dimorphism may accordingly differ in the ontogenetic patterns of their sex ster...

    Authors: Maiko Kawajiri, Katsuhisa Uchida, Hiroaki Chiba, Shunsuke Moriyama and Kazunori Yamahira

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:31

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  16. Content type: Research article

    During vertebrate development, the central nervous system (CNS) has stereotyped neuronal tracts (scaffolds) that include longitudinal and commissural axonal bundles, such as the medial longitudinal fascicle or...

    Authors: Yasuhiko Tosa, Kiyohito Tsukano, Tatsuya Itoyama, Mai Fukagawa, Yukako Nii, Ryota Ishikawa, Ken-ichi T. Suzuki, Makiko Fukui, Masahumi Kawaguchi and Yasunori Murakami

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:28

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Species with fission-fusion social systems tend to exchange individualized contact calls to maintain group cohesion. Signature whistles by bottlenose dolphins are unique compared to the contact calls of other ...

    Authors: Yuka Mishima, Tadamichi Morisaka, Miho Itoh, Ikuo Matsuo, Aiko Sakaguchi and Yoshinori Miyamoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:27

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii, is a protandrous hermaphrodite. Under appropriate social conditions, male fish can become female. Previous studies indicated that estrogens are important regulators of sex cha...

    Authors: Masaru Nakamura, Saori Miura, Ryo Nozu and Yasuhisa Kobayashi

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:30

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  19. Content type: Research article

    From the large-brained cephalopods to the acephalic bivalves, molluscs show a vast range of nervous system centralization patterns. Despite this diversity, molluscan nervous systems, broadly considered, are or...

    Authors: Shuichi Shigeno, Rahul Parnaik, Caroline B. Albertin and Clifton W. Ragsdale

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:26

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Eels are animals commonly used in zoological research, as these species have a unique catadromous life history and belong to a phylogenetically ancient group of Teleostei. However, eel reproduction is difficul...

    Authors: Yasuhisa Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Mototani, Fumiyasu Murayama and Tatuya Sakamoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:25

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in ...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Iwamoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:24

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Annelids exhibit great regenerative abilities, which are mainly used after injury or during reproduction. These lophotrochozoans thus represent excellent models for regeneration research. However, detailed mor...

    Authors: Michael Weidhase, Conrad Helm and Christoph Bleidorn

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:20

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Urbanization converts animal habitats into globally homogeneous environments. Consequently, urban communities have low diversity and are often dominated by a few species. However, proximate environmental facto...

    Authors: Minoru Moriyama and Hideharu Numata

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:19

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  24. Content type: Review

    Xenoturbella is a strange marine worm that can be collected regularly only off the west coast of Sweden. Due to its simple morphology, which lacks a centralized nervous system, coelom, an...

    Authors: Hiroaki Nakano

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:22

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  25. Content type: Research article

    In order to clarify the effect of extremely high temperature on gonads of fish, juveniles of the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, at three days after hatching (d.a.h.) were reared at a high temperatur...

    Authors: Masaru Nakamura, Ryo Nozu, Shigeho Ijiri, Tohru Kobayashi, Toshiaki Hirai, Yoko Yamaguchi, Andre Seale, Darren T. Lerner and Gordon E. Grau

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:21

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Reef-building corals (Scleractinia) exhibit various colors, of which fluorescent proteins (FPs) are a major determinant. Gene duplication is considered a major mechanism in the generation of the FP gene family an...

    Authors: Shiho Takahashi-Kariyazono, Yoko Satta and Yohey Terai

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:23

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Despite the great diversity in digit morphology reflecting the adaptation of tetrapods to their lifestyle, the number of digits in extant tetrapod species is conservatively stabilized at five or less, which is...

    Authors: Shinichi Hayashi, Takuya Kobayashi, Tohru Yano, Namiko Kamiyama, Shiro Egawa, Ryohei Seki, Kazuki Takizawa, Masataka Okabe, Hitoshi Yokoyama and Koji Tamura

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:17

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Lake Tanganyika in the African Great Rift Valley is known as a site of adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes. Diverse herbivorous fishes coexist on a rocky littoral of the lake. Herbivorous cichlids have acquir...

    Authors: Hiroki Hata, Jyunya Shibata, Koji Omori, Masanori Kohda and Michio Hori

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:15

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Blakiston’s fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) was previously widespread on Hokkaido Island, Japan, but is now distributed only in limited forest areas. The population size on Hokkaido decreased during the 20th century d...

    Authors: Keita Omote, Chizuko Nishida, Takeshi Takenaka, Keisuke Saito, Ryohji Shimura, Satoshi Fujimoto, Takao Sato and Ryuichi Masuda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:16

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Butterflies have well-developed color vision, presumably optimally tuned to the detection of conspecifics by their wing coloration. Here we investigated the pigmentary and structural basis of the wing colors i...

    Authors: Doekele G Stavenga, Atsuko Matsushita and Kentaro Arikawa

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:14

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Quantifying intraspecific genetic variation in functionally important genes, such as those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is important in the establishment of conservation plans for endangered ...

    Authors: Tetsuo I Kohyama, Keita Omote, Chizuko Nishida, Takeshi Takenaka, Keisuke Saito, Satoshi Fujimoto and Ryuichi Masuda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:13

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The adrenomedullins (AMs) comprise a hormonal family in mammals and teleost fishes, with five members (AM1–5) found or predicted in most of the teleosts including Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). AM1 is known t...

    Authors: Maho Ogoshi, Kanoko Kato and Tatsuya Sakamoto

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:12

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Entrainment to light cycle is a prerequisite for circadian rhythms to set daily physiological events to occur at an appropriate time of day. In hemimetabolous insects, the photoreceptor molecule for photic ent...

    Authors: Sayaka Komada, Yuichi Kamae, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Kousuke Tatewaki, Ehab Hassaneen, ASM Saifullah, Taishi Yoshii, Akihisa Terakita and Kenji Tomioka

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:11

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  34. Content type: Review

    This review describes common features among diverse biological clocks in insects, including circadian, circatidal, circalunar/circasemilunar, and circannual clocks. These clocks control various behaviors, phys...

    Authors: Hideharu Numata, Yosuke Miyazaki and Tomoko Ikeno

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:10

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  35. Content type: Research article

    While olfaction is one of the most important senses in most terrestrial mammals, it is absent in modern toothed whales (Odontoceti, Cetacea). Furthermore, behavioral evidence suggests that gustation is very li...

    Authors: Takushi Kishida, JGM Thewissen, Takashi Hayakawa, Hiroo Imai and Kiyokazu Agata

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:9

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Planarians belong to an evolutionarily early group of organisms that possess a central nervous system including a well-organized brain with a simple architecture but many types of neurons. Planarians display a...

    Authors: Takeshi Inoue, Hajime Hoshino, Taiga Yamashita, Seira Shimoyama and Kiyokazu Agata

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:7

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The vertebrate body is characterized by its dual segmental organization: pharyngeal arches in the head and somites in the trunk. Muscular and nervous system morphologies are also organized following these meta...

    Authors: Yasuhiro Oisi, Satoko Fujimoto, Kinya G Ota and Shigeru Kuratani

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:6

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Diverse insects and other organisms are associated with microbial symbionts, which often significantly contribute to growth and survival of their hosts and/or drastically affect phenotypes of their hosts in a ...

    Authors: Takahiro Hosokawa, Nahomi Kaiwa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi and Takema Fukatsu

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:5

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Calcium carbonate biominerals participate in diverse physiological functions. Despite intensive studies, little is known about how mineralization is initiated in organisms.

    Authors: Motoki Hojo, Ai Omi, Gen Hamanaka, Kazutoshi Shindo, Atsuko Shimada, Mariko Kondo, Takanori Narita, Masato Kiyomoto, Yohei Katsuyama, Yasuo Ohnishi, Naoki Irie and Hiroyuki Takeda

    Citation: Zoological Letters 2015 1:3

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