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  1. In the darkness of the ocean, an impressive number of taxa have evolved the capability to emit light. Many mesopelagic organisms emit a dim ventral glow that matches with the residual environmental light in or...

    Authors: Laurent Duchatelet, Nicolas Pinte, Taketeru Tomita, Keiichi Sato and Jérôme Mallefet
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:9
  2. In the previous paper published in 2017, we described the structure of Hox gene cluster of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, and discussed the scenario for the disintegration of Hox gene clusters during evolutio...

    Authors: Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh and Hidetoshi Saiga
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:8

    The Research article to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2017 3:17

  3. The free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a powerful model organism for use in studying mechanisms of regeneration and stem cell regulation due to its combination of biological and experimental prope...

    Authors: Jakub Wudarski, Kirill Ustyantsev, Lisa Glazenburg and Eugene Berezikov
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:7
  4. The pharyngeal arches are a series of bulges found on the lateral surface of the head of vertebrate embryos, and it is within these segments that components of the later anatomy are laid down. In most vertebra...

    Authors: Subathra Poopalasundaram, Jo Richardson, Annabelle Scott, Alex Donovan, Karen Liu and Anthony Graham
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:6
  5. A major question in stream ecology is how invertebrates cope with flow. In aquatic gastropods, typically, larger and more globular shells with larger apertures are found in lotic (flowing water) versus lentic ...

    Authors: Gerlien Verhaegen, Hendrik Herzog, Katrin Korsch, Gerald Kerth, Martin Brede and Martin Haase
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:5
  6. Sea spiders (Pycnogonida) are an abundant faunal element of the Southern Ocean (SO). Several recent phylogeographical studies focused on the remarkably diverse SO pycnogonid fauna, resulting in the identificat...

    Authors: Georg Brenneis and Claudia P. Arango
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:4
  7. In the context of evolutionary arthopodial transformations, centipede ultimate legs exhibit a plethora of morphological modifications and behavioral adaptations. Many species possess significantly elongated, t...

    Authors: Matthes Kenning, Vanessa Schendel, Carsten H. G. Müller and Andy Sombke
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:3
  8. For many years, Paramacrobiotus richtersi was reported to consist of populations with different chromosome numbers and reproductive modes. To clarify the relationships among different populations, the type locali...

    Authors: Roberto Guidetti, Michele Cesari, Roberto Bertolani, Tiziana Altiero and Lorena Rebecchi
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2019 5:1
  9. The group Vertebrata is currently placed as a subphylum in the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, Cephalochordata (lancelets) and Urochordata (ascidians). The past three decades, have seen extr...

    Authors: Naoki Irie, Noriyuki Satoh and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:32
  10. Adult mantis lacewings, neuropteran holometabolan insects of the group Mantispidae, possess anterior walking legs transformed into prey-catching grasping appendages reminiscent of those of praying mantises. Wh...

    Authors: Joachim T. Haug, Patrick Müller and Carolin Haug
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:31
  11. The study of chondrocrania has a long tradition with a focus on single specimens and stages. It revealed great interspecific diversity and a notion of intraspecific variation. As an embryonic structure, the ch...

    Authors: Evelyn Hüppi, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Athanasia C. Tzika and Ingmar Werneburg
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:29
  12. While skeletal evolution has been extensively studied, the evolution of limb muscles and brachial plexus has received less attention. In this review, we focus on the tempo and mode of evolution of forelimb mus...

    Authors: Tatsuya Hirasawa and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:27
  13. Entrainment to the environmental light cycle is an essential property of the circadian clock. Although the compound eye is known to be the major photoreceptor necessary for entrainment in many insects, the mol...

    Authors: Yuki Kutaragi, Atsushi Tokuoka, Yasuaki Tomiyama, Motoki Nose, Takayuki Watanabe, Tetsuya Bando, Yoshiyuki Moriyama and Kenji Tomioka
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:26
  14. Following publication of the original article [1] the author advised that (in the ‘Discussion’ section) the letter ‘L’ and ‘D’ in some expressions (namely, D and L in L-Trp, D-Trp and L-Asn-D-Trp-L-Phe) were n...

    Authors: Haruka Nakagawa, Kiyono Sekii, Takanobu Maezawa, Makoto Kitamura, Soichiro Miyashita, Marina Abukawa, Midori Matsumoto and Kazuya Kobayashi
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:25

    The original article was published in Zoological Letters 2018 4:14

  15. Planarians are non-parasitic Platyhelminthes (flatworms) famous for their regeneration ability and for having a well-organized brain. Dugesia japonica is a typical planarian species that is widely distributed in ...

    Authors: Yang An, Akane Kawaguchi, Chen Zhao, Atsushi Toyoda, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi, Seyed Ahmad Mousavi, Reza Bagherzadeh, Takeshi Inoue, Hajime Ogino, Asao Fujiyama, Hamidreza Chitsaz, Hossein Baharvand and Kiyokazu Agata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:24
  16. Mudskippers are amphibious fishes that use their pectoral fins to move on land. Their pectoral fins are specifically modified for terrestrial locomotion. Studies of the anatomy and kinematics of adult mudskipp...

    Authors: Eri Okamoto, Hieu Van Mai, Atsushi Ishimatsu and Mikiko Tanaka
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:23
  17. Geographical patterns and degrees of genetic divergence among populations differ between species, reflecting relative potentials for speciation or cladogenesis and differing capacities for environmental adapta...

    Authors: Antonio Cádiz, Nobuaki Nagata, Luis M. Díaz, Yukari Suzuki-Ohno, Lázaro M. Echenique-Díaz, Hiroshi D. Akashi, Takashi Makino and Masakado Kawata
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:21
  18. Ticks can survive long periods without feeding but, when feeding, ingest large quantities of blood, resulting in a more than 100-fold increase of body volume. We study morphological adaptations to changes in o...

    Authors: J. Matthias Starck, Lisa Mehnert, Anja Biging, Juliana Bjarsch, Sandra Franz-Guess, Daniel Kleeberger and Marie Hörnig
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:20
  19. Tyramine, known as a “trace amine” in mammals, modulates a wide range of behavior in invertebrates; however, the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms are not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

    Authors: Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Masamichi Ohkura and Junichi Nakai
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:19
  20. The skeletal musculature of gnathostomes, which is derived from embryonic somites, consists of epaxial and hypaxial portions. Some hypaxial muscles, such as tongue and limb muscles, undergo de-epithelializatio...

    Authors: Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shunya Kuroda and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:18
  21. Turbellarian species can post-embryonically produce germ line cells from pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts, which enables some of them to switch between an asexual and a sexual state in response to envir...

    Authors: Haruka Nakagawa, Kiyono Sekii, Takanobu Maezawa, Makoto Kitamura, Soichiro Miyashita, Marina Abukawa, Midori Matsumoto and Kazuya Kobayashi
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:14

    The Correction to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2018 4:25

  22. Investigation of the internal tissues and organs of a macroscopic organism usually requires destructive processes, such as dissection or sectioning. These processes are inevitably associated with the loss of s...

    Authors: Alu Konno and Shigetoshi Okazaki
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:13
  23. Paleozoic holocephalian tooth plates are rarely found articulated in their original positions. When they are found isolated, it is difficult to associate the small, anterior tooth plates with the larger, more ...

    Authors: Wayne M. Itano and Lance L. Lambert
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:12
  24. Pearl production by transplantation in Akoya pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) is a biotechnology developed in Japan that skillfully utilizes the pearl-forming ability of oysters. In this method, cultured pearls are...

    Authors: Jeane Siswitasari Mulyana, Toshiharu Iwai, Masaharu Takahashi, Achmad Farajallah, Yusli Wardiatno, Chiemi Miura and Takeshi Miura
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:11
  25. Sciuromorpha (squirrels and close relatives) are diverse in terms of body size and locomotor behavior. Individual species are specialized to perform climbing, gliding or digging behavior, the latter being the ...

    Authors: Maja Mielke, Jan Wölfer, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H. van Heteren, Eli Amson and John A. Nyakatura
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:10
  26. Aphids display “cyclic parthenogenesis,” in which parthenogenetically and sexually reproducing morphs seasonally alternate in the aphid annual life cycles. There are various characteristics that differ between...

    Authors: Koki Murano, Kota Ogawa, Tomonari Kaji and Toru Miura
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:9
  27. Invisibility in the water column is a crucial strategy for gelatinous zooplanktons in avoiding detection by visual predators, especially for animals distributed in the euphotic zone during the daytime; i.e., s...

    Authors: Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Jun Nishikawa and Euichi Hirose
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:7
  28. Endogenous viral elements play important roles in eukaryotic evolution by giving rise to genetic novelties. Herpesviruses are a large family of DNA viruses, most of which do not have the ability to endogenize ...

    Authors: Yusuke Inoue, Masahiko Kumagai, Xianbo Zhang, Tomonori Saga, Deshou Wang, Akihiko Koga and Hiroyuki Takeda
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:6
  29. The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostom...

    Authors: Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi and Shigeru Kuratani
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:5
  30. Understanding feedback between above- and below-ground processes of biological communities is a key to the effective management of natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, as above- and below-ground food ...

    Authors: Hirokazu Toju and Yuki G. Baba
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:4
  31. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a popular animal model used in vertebrate genetic analysis. Recently, an efficient (~ 30%) knock-in system via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was established in zebrafish using the ...

    Authors: Ikuko Watakabe, Hisashi Hashimoto, Yukiko Kimura, Saori Yokoi, Kiyoshi Naruse and Shin-ichi Higashijima
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:3
  32. Flight feathers, a type of feather that is unique to extant/extinct birds and some non-avian dinosaurs, are the most evolutionally advanced type of feather. In general, feather types are formed in the second o...

    Authors: Mao Kondo, Tomoe Sekine, Taku Miyakoshi, Keiichi Kitajima, Shiro Egawa, Ryohei Seki, Gembu Abe and Koji Tamura
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2018 4:2
  33. Teleosts transiting from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) environments face an immediate osmotic stress from ion influxes and water loss, but some euryhaline species such as eels can maintain a stable plasma o...

    Authors: Marty Kwok Shing Wong, Takehiro Tsukada, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Supriya Pipil, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Wataru Iwasaki and Yoshio Takei
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:22
  34. Sex-biased dispersal is widespread among mammals, including the brown bear (Ursus arctos). Previous phylogeographic studies of the brown bear based on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA have shown intraspecif...

    Authors: Daisuke Hirata, Tsutomu Mano, Alexei V. Abramov, Gennady F. Baryshnikov, Pavel A. Kosintsev, Koichi Murata and Ryuichi Masuda
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:21
  35. The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structu...

    Authors: Mari Kawaguchi, Ryohei Okubo, Akari Harada, Kazuki Miyasaka, Kensuke Takada, Junya Hiroi and Shigeki Yasumasu
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:19
  36. Gene duplication is considered important to increasing the genetic diversity in animals. In fish, visual pigment genes are often independently duplicated, and the evolutionary significance of such duplications...

    Authors: Yoji Nakamura, Motoshige Yasuike, Miyuki Mekuchi, Yuki Iwasaki, Nobuhiko Ojima, Atushi Fujiwara, Seinen Chow and Kenji Saitoh
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:18
  37. Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically po...

    Authors: Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh and Hidetoshi Saiga
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:17

    The Update to this article has been published in Zoological Letters 2019 5:8

  38. Plant-dwelling beetles overcome challenging attachment hurdles by means of ellaborated, tarsal attachment devices, which are frequently equipped with hairy adhesive pads. While the tarsal functional morphology...

    Authors: Dagmar Voigt, Takuma Takanashi, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Kenichi Yazaki, Katsushi Kuroda, Remi Tsubaki and Naoe Hosoda
    Citation: Zoological Letters 2017 3:16

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