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  1. Research article

    Rhodopsin gene copies in Japanese eel originated in a teleost-specific genome duplication

    Gene duplication is considered important to increasing the genetic diversity in animals. In fish, visual pigment genes are often independently duplicated, and the evolutionary significance of such duplications...

    Yoji Nakamura, Motoshige Yasuike, Miyuki Mekuchi, Yuki Iwasaki, Nobuhiko Ojima, Atushi Fujiwara, Seinen Chow and Kenji Saitoh

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:18

    Published on: 17 October 2017

  2. Research article

    Morphology of brood pouch formation in the pot-bellied seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis

    The reproductive strategies of vertebrates are diverse. Seahorses (Pisces: Syngnathidae) possess the unique characteristic of male pregnancy; i.e., males, not females, incubate embryos in a specialized structu...

    Mari Kawaguchi, Ryohei Okubo, Akari Harada, Kazuki Miyasaka, Kensuke Takada, Junya Hiroi and Shigeki Yasumasu

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:19

    Published on: 17 October 2017

  3. Research article

    Hox gene cluster of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, reveals multiple ancient steps of cluster disintegration during ascidian evolution

    Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically po...

    Yuka Sekigami, Takuya Kobayashi, Ai Omi, Koki Nishitsuji, Tetsuro Ikuta, Asao Fujiyama, Noriyuki Satoh and Hidetoshi Saiga

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:17

    Published on: 15 September 2017

  4. Research article

    Strongest grip on the rod: tarsal morphology and attachment of Japanese pine sawyer beetles

    Plant-dwelling beetles overcome challenging attachment hurdles by means of ellaborated, tarsal attachment devices, which are frequently equipped with hairy adhesive pads. While the tarsal functional morphology...

    Dagmar Voigt, Takuma Takanashi, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Kenichi Yazaki, Katsushi Kuroda, Remi Tsubaki and Naoe Hosoda

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:16

    Published on: 8 September 2017

  5. Research article

    Red-shift of spectral sensitivity due to screening pigment migration in the eyes of a moth, Adoxophyes orana

    We have found that the spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana) differs in laboratory strains originating from different regions of Japan. We have investigated ...

    Aya Satoh, Finlay J. Stewart, Hisaharu Koshitaka, Hiroshi D. Akashi, Primož Pirih, Yasushi Sato and Kentaro Arikawa

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:14

    Published on: 30 August 2017

  6. Research article

    Novel bacteriocyte-associated pleomorphic symbiont of the grain pest beetle Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    The lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a stored-product pest beetle. Early histological studies dating back to 1930s have reported that R. dominica and other bostrichid species ...

    Genta Okude, Ryuichi Koga, Toshinari Hayashi, Yudai Nishide, Xian-Ying Meng, Naruo Nikoh, Akihiro Miyanoshita and Takema Fukatsu

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:13

    Published on: 19 August 2017

  7. Research article

    Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are commonly associated with a diversity of rickettsial endosymbionts

    Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physi...

    Michael Gerth, Ronny Wolf, Christoph Bleidorn, Julia Richter, Rebekka Sontowski, Jasmin Unrein, Martin Schlegel and Axel Gruppe

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:12

    Published on: 14 August 2017

  8. Research article

    A fourth subtype of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors is activated by oxidized all-trans retinoic acid in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    The three known subtypes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) have been implicated in the control of immunity, brain function, and circadian rhythm in mammals. Here, we demonstrate by ph...

    Kotowa Sakai, Haruka Fukushima, Yuya Yamamoto and Toshitaka Ikeuchi

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:11

    Published on: 11 August 2017

  9. Research article

    Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates’ tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is us...

    Hiroshi Kakiuchida, Daisuke Sakai, Jun Nishikawa and Euichi Hirose

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:7

    Published on: 30 May 2017

  10. Research article

    cryptochrome genes form an oscillatory loop independent of the per/tim loop in the circadian clockwork of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Animals exhibit circadian rhythms with a period of approximately 24 h in various physiological functions, including locomotor activity. This rhythm is controlled by an endogenous oscillatory mechanism, or circ...

    Atsushi Tokuoka, Taichi Q. Itoh, Shinryo Hori, Outa Uryu, Yoshiki Danbara, Motoki Nose, Tetsuya Bando, Teiichi Tanimura and Kenji Tomioka

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:5

    Published on: 6 April 2017

  11. Research article

    Group-housed females promote production of asexual ootheca in American cockroaches

    Facultative parthenogenesis, seen in many animal phyla, is a reproductive strategy in which females are able to generate offspring when mating partners are unavailable. In some subsocial and eusocial insects, ...

    Ko Katoh, Masazumi Iwasaki, Shouhei Hosono, Atsushi Yoritsune, Masanori Ochiai, Makoto Mizunami and Hiroshi Nishino

    Zoological Letters 2017 3:3

    Published on: 13 March 2017

  12. Research article

    Recurrent evolution of gut symbiotic bacteria in pentatomid stinkbugs

    Diverse animals are intimately associated with microbial symbionts. How such host–symbiont associations have evolved is a fundamental biological issue. Recent studies have revealed a variety of evolutionary re...

    Takahiro Hosokawa, Yu Matsuura, Yoshitomo Kikuchi and Takema Fukatsu

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:24

    Published on: 30 November 2016

  13. Research article

    Whip spiders (Amblypygi) become water-repellent by a colloidal secretion that self-assembles into hierarchical microstructures

    Among both plants and arthropods, super-hydrophobic surfaces have evolved that enable self-cleaning, locomotion on water surfaces, or plastron respiration. Super-hydrophobicity is achieved by a combination of ...

    Jonas O. Wolff, Thomas Schwaha, Michael Seiter and Stanislav N. Gorb

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:23

    Published on: 28 November 2016

  14. Research article

    Two-headed mutants of the lamprey, a basal vertebrate

    This is the first report of two-headed (bicephaly) lamprey twins. Although lampreys sit at a crucial phylogenetic position, there are only a few reports on their teratology and developmental abnormalities.

    Daichi G. Suzuki

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:22

    Published on: 16 November 2016

  15. Research article

    Palaeospondylus as a primitive hagfish

    The taxonomic position of the Middle Devonian fish-like animal Palaeospondylus has remained enigmatic, due mainly to the inability to identify homologous cranial elements. This animal has been classified into nea...

    Tatsuya Hirasawa, Yasuhiro Oisi and Shigeru Kuratani

    Zoological Letters 2016 2:20

    Published on: 8 September 2016

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